2811_Jun_01MS

2811_Jun_01MS - OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation Subject: Foundation Chemistry Code: 2811 Session: June Year: 2001 Final Mark Scheme 10/6/2001 MAXIMUM MARK 90 RR 10/6/2001 Page 1 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 1. (a) State what is meant by (i) an ionic bond (electrostatic) attraction between (oppositely charged) ions ! [1] (ii) a covalent bond shared electrons !shared pair ! ('both shared electrons’ scores both marks) [2] (b) Draw 'dot-and-cross' diagrams to show the bonding in sodium chloride and hydrogen chloride. You should show outer electron shells only. NaCl: correct dot and cross correct charges HCl: ! ! correct dot and cross ! [3] (c) (i) State what is meant by an orbital. a region in which electrons can be found ! (Response must imply the ‘where the electrons are found’. Do NOT accept ‘path of electron’ or ‘electron arrangement’) [1] (ii) Draw diagrams to show the shape of an s orbital and of a p orbital. s orbital: circle/ellipse ! p orbital: figure of eight/’egg-timer’ ! [2] (iii) Complete the table below to show how many electrons completely fill each of the following number of electrons a p orbital a d sub shell the third shell ! 10 ! 18 ! 2 [3] [Total: 12] Page 4 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 2. The table below shows the boiling points of the elements sodium to chlorine in Period 3 of the Periodic Table. element Mg Al Si P S Cl bonding M M M C C C C ! structure (a) Na G G G G S S S ! (i) Complete the 'bonding' row of the table using • M for metallic bonding • C for covalent bonding [1] (ii) Complete the 'structure' row of the table using • S for a simple molecular structure • G for a giant structure [1] (b) State what is meant by metallic bonding. You should draw a diagram as part of your answer. positive ions/metal ions/cations ! surrounded by free/delocalised/sea of electrons attraction between the above ! ! (Do NOT accept ‘holds electrons’, ‘glue’ or ‘cement’) [3] (c) Explain, in terms of their structure and bonding, why the boiling point of (i) phosphorus is much lower than that of silicon, Si has stronger forces/P has weaker forces Si: covalent bonds/giant covalent ! (i.e. comparison of forces) ! P: weak forces between molecules/intermolecular forces/van der Waals ! [3 → 2 max] (ii) aluminium is much higher than that of magnesium. Al has stronger (metallic) bonding ! (If ‘stronger covalent forces’ then WRONG) ! Al ions are smaller/ more positive/Al ions have a greater charge density ! Al has 3 outer electrons, Mg has 2/Al has more (outer) electrons than Mg [3 → 2 max] [Total: 9] Page 5 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 3. Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a colourless gas which dissolves very readily in water forming hydrochloric acid. (a) At room temperature and pressure, 1.00 dm3 of water dissolves 432 dm3 of hydrogen chloride gas. (i) How many moles of hydrogen chloride dissolve in the water? 432/24 = 18 mol ! [1] (ii) The hydrochloric acid formed has a volume of 1.40 dm3. What is the concentration, in mol dm−3, of the hydrochloric acid? 18/1.4 = 12.9 mol dm−3 ! (Look for 12.86) i.e. ans to (a)(i) / 1.4) [1] (b) In solution, the molecules of hydrogen chloride ionise: HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl−(aq) Describe a simple test to confirm the presence of chloride ions. ! white (precipitate) ! Add AgNO3(aq) Alternative: “electrolysis giving chlorine ! which bleaches indicator paper !” [2] (c) Hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. For each reaction, state what you would expect to see and write a balanced equation. (i) MgO dissolves/disappears ! MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) (ii) MgCO3 bubbles/fizzing/CO2 evolved or formed ! (state symbols not required) [2] ! MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) ! (state symbols not required) [2] [Total: 8] Page 6 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 4. Sulphur and sulphur compounds are common in the environment. (a) A sample of sulphur from a volcano contained 88% by mass of 32S and 12% by mass of 34 S. (i) Complete the table below to show the atomic structure of these isotopes of sulphur. protons number of neutrons electrons 32 16 16 16 34 16 18 16 isotope S S ! ! [2] (ii) Define the term relative atomic mass. average atomic mass/weighted mean/average mass (MUST include reference to atoms or isotopes) compared with carbon-12 ! ! 1/12th of mass of carbon-12/on a scale where carbon-12 is 12 ! [3] (iii) Calculate the relative atomic mass of the volcanic sulphur. Your answer should be given to three significant figures. 88*32/100 + 12*34/100 = 32.2 ! ! (to 3 sig figs: allow full marks for answer. 32.24 (calc) gets 1 mark only) [2] (b) Rotten eggs smell of hydrogen sulphide H2S, which is a poisonous gas. Draw a diagram to show the likely shape and bond angle of a hydrogen sulphide molecule. Explain how you have made your choice. S H H ! 104 - 105° ! (accept 91-105°) Watch for bond angle between S−H and lone pair: this is WRONG) electron pair repulsion / 4 electron pairs ! [3] (c) Calculate the empirical formula of DMS. mole ratio: 38.6 9.7 51.7 12 C : 1 H : 32.1 S ! i.e. correct use of '12', '1' and 32.1. = 2 : 6 : 1 / empirical formula = C2H6S ! (If 16 is used for S, then emp formula → CH3S. OR C: 6 and S: 16, → C2H3S Worth 1 mark) [2] [Total: 12] Page 7 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 5. The reaction between barium and water is a redox reaction. Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) (a) Explain, in terms of electrons, what is meant by (i) oxidation loss (of electrons) ! [1] (ii) reduction gain (of electrons) ! [1] (b) Which element has been oxidised in this reaction. Deduce the change in its oxidation state. Ba ! 0 to +2 (needs to be completely correct) ! [2] 3 (c) A student reacted 2.74g of barium with water to form 250 cm of aqueous barium hydroxide. (i) Calculate how many moles of Ba reacted. 2.74/137 / 0.0200 mol ! [1] (ii) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm−3, of Ba(OH)2 was formed. ans to (c)(i) x 4 mol dm−3 !correct answer: 0.0800 mol dm −3 [1] (iii) Calculate the volume of H2 that would be produced at room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.). [1 mol of gas molecules occupies 24.0 dm3 at r.t.p.] ans to (c)(i) x 24.0 dm3 !correct answer: 0.480 dm 3 / 480 cm3 [1] (iv) The solution of barium hydroxide is alkaline. Identify a compound that could be added to neutralise this solution and write a balanced equation for the reaction that would take place. any acid ! balanced equation to match acid chosen ! [2] Page 8 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation (d) The Group 2 elements react more vigorously with water as the group is descended. This can be explained in part by using ionisation energies. (i) Define the term first ionisation energy. Energy change when each atom in 1 mole ! ! loses an electron ! (to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions). of gaseous atoms (or 1 mole of gaseous atoms loses 1 mole of electrons) [3] (ii) Explain, in terms of ionisation energies, why the Group 2 elements become more reactive as the group is descended. ionisation energy decreases ! electron is further from nucleus/ electron in a different shell electron experiences more shielding ! ! (Watch out for comparison: ‘shielding’ alone is not enough for mark) nuclear attraction decreases/distance or shielding outweighs nuclear attraction/ electron is easier to lose/effective nuclear charge decreases ! [4] [Total: 16] Page 9 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 6. The boiling points of water, hydrogen chloride and argon are shown in Table 7.1 below. substance H2O HCl Ar boiling point /°C 100 −85 −186 number of electrons per molecule 10 18 18 (a) H2O, HCl and Ar all have van der Waals' forces. Outline how van der Waals' forces arise between molecules. ! causes an induced/resultant dipole on another molecule/atom ! oscillating/changing/temporary/transient dipole on one atom [2] (b) Liquid H2O has additional intermolecular forces. (i) What are these forces? H2O: Hydrogen bonds ! [1] (ii) Explain, with the aid of a diagram, how these forces arise between molecules of H2O(l). electronegativity/polarity: O more electronegative than H ! H O have polar molecules ! (could be from diagram) H bonding: dipoles in water correctly shown ! /O is very electronegative 2 H-bond between H and an O in another H2O molecule Involvement of lone pair on oxygen ! ! [5] (c) Liquid HCl also has additional intermolecular forces. What are these forces? permanent dipole-dipole interactions ! [1] (d) Explain the variation in boiling points shown in Table 7.1. H-bonds are the strongest ! van der Waals’ forces/ forces between Ar atoms are the weakest ! (i.e. responses should confirm order of strength of 3 types of forces) [2] [Total: 11] Page 10 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 7. The bones in an adult human skeleton have a mass of approximately 9 kg. Of this, 1 kg is calcium. (a) The calcium in bones is present as calcium ions, Ca2+. Complete the electronic configurations of the following. a calcium atom: 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 a calcium ion: 1s22s22p63s23p6 ! ! [2] (b) Calculate the approximate number of calcium ions in an adult human skeleton. moles of Ca = 1000/40.1 = approx 25 ! (IF atomic number is used for Ca (20), then 1st mark is lost but 2nd mark gained) number of calcium ions = 6 x 1023 x 25 = 1.5 x 1025 ! [2] (c) Explain why calcium atoms are not present in a human skeleton? Ca2+ ions more stable than Ca/ Ca atoms react with water/too reactive ! [1] (d) The calcium in bones can be assumed to be present as calcium phosphate. A phosphate ion has the formula PO43−. (i) What is the formula of calcium phosphate? Ca3(PO4)2 ! [1] (ii) Estimate the percentage, by mass, of calcium phosphate in an adult human skeleton. Ca3(PO4)2 has a molar mass of (40.1 x 3) + (31 + 16 x 4)2 = 310.3 g mol−1 mass of Ca3(PO4)2 in bone = 310.3/120.3 = 2.58 kg % of Ca3(PO4)2 in bone = (2.58/9) x 100 = 29% ! ! ! (28.6%) (i.e. 1 mark for molar mass of ans to (d)(i). 1 mark for multiplying by 100/9 1 mark for proportion idea i.e dividing by 120.3) CaPO4 gives Mr of 135.1/135. [3] [Total: 9] Page 11 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry 2811 June 2001 Chemistry Foundation 8. Compare and explain the electrical conductivity of sodium chloride, diamond and graphite. In your answer, you should consider the structure and bonding of each of these materials. In this question, 2 marks are available for the quality of written communication. NaCl: giant ! ionic !lattice fixed ions in solid ! does not conduct when solid ! ! mobile ions in solution or when molten ! does conduct when aqueous/ molten 6 marks max 5 Diamond OR graphite: covalent ! giant ! Diamond: no free electrons/ions/charge carriers/all electrons involved in bonding does not conduct at all (NOT poor conductor) Graphite: layered structure ! ! ! delocalised electrons (between layers) ! conducts (by movement of delocalised electrons) ! 7 marks max 6 Q – legible text with accurate spelling, punctuation and grammar ! Clear, well-organised, using specialist terms 5 or more ! [Total: 13] Page 12 of 12 3882 January 2001 D:\Documents and Settings\Rob Ritchie.ROB\My Documents\Rob's Files\OCR\Exams\2001New\June 2001 PostQPEC\Jun2001MS Final.doc 02/08/2001 ...
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