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Unformatted text preview: 1 Bread Ingredients 1. Wheat flour: contains starch, gluten-forming proteins, tiny amount of fat 2. Water: hydrates starch and proteins 3. Salt: Adds flavor, conditions gluten 4. Yeast: Ferments sugar to ethanol + CO 2 (gas), likes 95°F Knead Form loaves Bake Egypt 1200 BC Wheat Flour Dried pasta 13 Durum (semolina) Yeast bread, pizza, pasta 13 Bread Biscuits, quick breads 11 All-purpose Cakes, quick breads 8 Cake Uses Protein (%) Flour 2 Famous Food Scientists Thomas Jefferson Gluten (dough) • Insoluble gluten-forming proteins are present in dry wheat flour • Wheat flour PLUS water PLUS mixing develops gluten ( dough ) • Added fat limits gluten development (“shortens” it) by coating strands, limiting bonding between gluten strands • Added sugar limits gluten development by competing for water Gluten • Gluten has unique texture: – Elastic (stretches and can return to original shape) – Extensible (moldable, like clay) • Forms large thin sheets in dough that surround...
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- Winter '08
- Flour, wheat flour, Allie Pittenger, Pie/puff pastry method