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Unformatted text preview: 1 Fermented Foods and & Beverages Fermentation Fermentation is the "slow decomposition process of organic substances induced by micro-organisms, or by enzymes of plant or animal origin" . It can be described as a biochemical change, which is brought about by the anaerobic or partially anaerobic oxidation of food by either micro- organisms or enzymes. This is distinct from putrefaction, which is the degradation of food materials. The science of fermentation is known as zymology . Fermentation (food) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Micro-organisms responsible for food fermentations The most common groups of micro- organisms involved in food fermentations are: Bacteria Yeasts Molds Common Food Fermentations 1. Lactic acid fermentations. 2. High salt/savory meat-Favored/amino acid/ peptide sauce and paste fermentations. 3. Alcoholic fermentations. 4. Acetic Acid fermentations. 5. Other mixed fermentations. 2 Food fermentation serves ¡ve main purposes 1. Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of ¢avors, aromas, and textures in food substrates. 2. Nutritional enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins. 3. Preservation of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acid and alkaline fermentations. 4. Detoxi¡cation during food-fermentation processing. 5. A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements. History Since fruits ferment naturally, fermentation precedes human history. Since prehistoric times, however, humans have been taking control of the fermentation process. The earliest evidence of winemaking dates from 6000 BC, in Georgia , the former Soviet Republic. 7000 year old jars of wine have been excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran, which are now on display at the University of Pennsylvania . There is strong evidence that people were fermenting beverages in Babylon circa 5000 BC , ancient Egypt circa 3150 BC , pre-Hispanic Mexico circa 2000 BC , and Sudan circa 1500 BC . There is also evidence of leavened bread in ancient Egypt circa 1500 BC and of milk fermentation in Babylon circa 3000 BC . The Chinese were probably the first to develop vegetable fermentation. History continued French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first zymologist , when in 1857 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as "respiration without air". Pasteur performed careful research and concluded: "I am of the opinion that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells.... If asked, in what consists the chemical act whereby the sugar is decomposed ... I am completely ignorant of it.” The German Eduad Buchner, winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in chemistry, later determined that fermentation was actually caused by a yeast secretion that he termed zymase....
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