Segment 1B Yates Ch. 2 - Warning Concerning Copyright...

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Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions The Copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyright material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction not be "used for any purposes other than private study, scholarship, or research." If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright infringement.
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chapter two HOW UNIONS FORM Up until the end of the 1930s, the formation of a union was mainly a contest of power. Employers were intent on keeping their workplaces union-free, and they took whatever steps were necessary, no matter how ruthless. Acts of anti-union violence were common and, though illegal, were seldom punished. In fact, public authorities were often complicit in corporate violence against working people. In the coal towns of Pennsylvania, for example, the notorious coal and iron police hired by the companies to intimidate the miners and their fam- ilies were actually sanctioned by the state legislature. Union support- ers could be fired and blacklisted legally. Employers were free to coerce their workers into signing "yellow dog" contracts in which they promised not to join a union. These were legally enforceable, and union organizers risked fine and imprisonment if they tried to get workers to break these agreements by joining a union. The courts took a dim view oflabor organizations and readily issued court orders called injunctions forbidding workers to strike, picket, or boycott. More than a thousand of these injunctions were issued in the 1920s alone. 1 Yet, despite the combined force of the corporations and the gov- ernment, workers did manage to organize to protect their interests and improve their circumstances. The living conditions of unskilled work- ers, including most African Americans, were too harsh to allow for much success in forming unions, but skilled workers were sometimes
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48 WHY UNIONS MATTER able to overcome the employers' antagonism. They did this through what came to be called direct actions. For example, iron molders might force their employer to give in to their collective demands by striking and enforcing their strike with pickets. The molders would typically be white men of the same nationality and with strong com- munity ties. No one would cross their picket lines, and occasionally the local police would not do the employers' bidding. A strike by one group of workers might spread to other groups, who would strike in sympathy. Workers came to understand that the more they stuck together, the better were their chances. 2
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course LER 110 taught by Professor Ashby during the Spring '11 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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Segment 1B Yates Ch. 2 - Warning Concerning Copyright...

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