Fluid Mechanics Study Material

Fluid Mechanics Study Material - LECTURES IN ELEMENTARY...

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Unformatted text preview: LECTURES IN ELEMENTARY FLUID DYNAMICS: Physics, Mathematics and Applications J. M. McDonough Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0503 c circlecopyrt 1987, 1990, 2002, 2004, 2009 Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Importance of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 Fluids in the pure sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Fluids in technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 The Study of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 The theoretical approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Experimental fluid dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Computational fluid dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 Overview of Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Some Background: Basic Physics of Fluids 11 2.1 The Continuum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Definition of a Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.1 Shear stress induced deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.2 More on shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.1 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.2 Thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3.3 Mass diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3.4 Other fluid properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.4 Classification of Flow Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4.1 Steady and unsteady flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4.2 Flow dimensionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4.3 Uniform and non-uniform flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.4.4 Rotational and irrotational flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.4.5 Viscous and inviscid flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4.6 Incompressible and compressible flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.4.7 Laminar and turbulent flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.4.8 Separated and unseparated flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.5 Flow Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.5.1 Streamlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.5.2 Pathlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Pathlines ....
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Fluid Mechanics Study Material - LECTURES IN ELEMENTARY...

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