ext_mkt_struct

ext_mkt_struct - Common Property Resources: Oil Example...

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Overview: Externalities • Effects of Production/Consumption Not Reflected in Market Transactions. • Tragedy of the Commons Markets without Externalities Q chem P chem S D P Q S D milk milk 1
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Markets with Externalities P chem Q chem S D P Q S D ) milk milk S = f(cost, soot ) (1) (2) Property Rights and Contracts • Impact of clear property rights and ability to contract (Coase Theorem If the farm has a right to clean air? If the chemical plant has a right to dispose in the air? • More difficult with high transactions costs 2
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Solving the Difficult Cases • Government intervention – Emissions constraint – Effluent taxes – Tradable permit • Tort law 3
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Recall “Tragedy of the Commons” Externality: Individual or firm sees the marginal (private) effect of actions, not the overall effect on the community as whole Private cost/benefit Community cost/benefit Addressed via joint ventures (cooperation), taxes, property rights, tradable permits
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Unformatted text preview: Common Property Resources: Oil Example (Lecture 15) • Issue: Drill more wells, pressure drops for all wells • Unfettered development drives individual profits to zero 900 wells, 100 barrels/well, Π i = $0, 90,000 total barrels from field • Joint venture maximizes field profits 450 wells, 550 barrels/well, Π i = $3.04 m, 247,500 total barrels from field 4 Common Resource Management MC well 1500 450 15,000 Value per well Number of wells MR to the community $ per 900 The “Commons”: Practice • How do you see this problem being dealt with – In oil fields? – In fishing? – Highways? – Air traffic? – Other examples? 5 Take Away Points • Externalities are effects of production or consumption that are not reflected in prices. • Externalities create distortions. • Government intervention and mergers or acquisitions are important ways to deal with externalities. 6...
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course SLOAN 15.010 taught by Professor Berndt during the Fall '04 term at MIT.

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ext_mkt_struct - Common Property Resources: Oil Example...

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