Kidney Slides Lecture 1 Anatomy and Function PDF CHM 651 For Taking Notes Fall 2011 Final

Kidney Slides Lecture 1 Anatomy and Function PDF CHM 651 For Taking Notes Fall 2011 Final

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Unformatted text preview: and Renal-Associated Physiology l Kidney Anatomy and Function (Lecture 1) David Anderson, Ph.D. Cleveland State University Functions ofKidney ” Regulation of water Regulation of electrolytes Acid—base regulation Elimination of waste products > Metabolic (urea, ammonia, creatinine, etc. > Toxins Endocfine > Prostaglandins > Renin-Angiotensin > Erythropoetin Regulation of bone growth through regulation of calcium and phosphate excretion > Directly through excretion of these ions > Vitamin D synthesis ,,Components o/fiUrinary SyStem§ A) 2 Kidneys > Average size for each - 11 cm long x 5-7.5 cm wide x 2.5 cm deep 2 Ureters > Tubes consisting of fibrous outer, muscular middle, and mucous inner layers > Average dimension for each - 25-30 cm long, 4-5 cm diameter 3) 1 Bladder > Collapsible “bag” that can store up to 0.5 L of urine > Activity controlled by parasympathetic nervous system C) 1 Urethra > Tube through which urine exits the body from the bladder 0) ‘59 vcm mm Qighv hdnty unaccy biuddqr Figure 1 (Chapter 1): The Urinary System C. M. Dienhan Basic Human Anatomy and Physiology’, W B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, 1967, p‘ 172. ‘x’alwi MA war; an s, m Wax”; range éaggw _»,( «MWVflR-XY this: Figure 2 (Chapter 1): Cross-Seckional \rmw of Kidneys in Body A. P Spence and E 3 Mason 'Human Anatomy and Physmlogy’, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, |ncv: Memo Park‘ CA 1979‘ p 708 Flgure 3 (Chapter 1): Inaccurate Diagram of Kidney Processes Sccrufion r. ..... __ __ __ _ ._._. Rubsomflon flubsomficn (mm H911 W1 2 in Urine I Kidney Flint Mar I I All Campanents Components Excrefad | I Figure 4 (Chapter 1): Accurate Dlagram of Kidney Processes Kidney Anatomy I Two Types of Kidney Cell Tissues (Renal Parenchyma) A) Cortex > Outer portion of kidney > Brownish pink color, granular appearance > Contains glomeruli and certain tubules (proximal and distal) > 75% of renal parenchyma is cortex B) Medulla > Inner portion of kidney > Deeper color with striated patterns, which are coned shaped (each cone called renal pyramid) > 8-18 renal pyramids per kidney (Cortex surrounds renal pyramids, above pyramids called cortical archs and ln-between called renal columns) Contains Loop of Henle and collecting ducts “was CW1} l’wwu‘m aura: . - ' ' . MW “0496 YEWIS “39W - “” Hiatus firm: 5’”me W" ‘Ws‘k-mw» - . _ ' ' ’AflNCNYMA *“‘-——-—-)___i., __. V) with; OI Wumwr'r“ ._ MEN». was " "‘"Wwwum mum IBM: (OmMWW W m7” . ‘ " _ M” Mama. ways KEMVJJY usva w r I .- - _'- _- -' *m “Wm” 9-6 mum am M ‘ \rmwol mam W721 1' in‘d' Ht-‘mfi l! nu.“ ungu- vv-u an; I‘m mug Figure 6 (Chapter 1} i. H, Miter, ‘ the UM (Toéiectmc: M'Mzdml lilmmmm ‘. beam: 6‘ "Kid-34¢} at (haters, am? Maury maddcr" OILS Pimrmaccmml Comgm) Séymmxx X3) 3973,, g 5‘ Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Kidney : Abdominal Aorta» Renal Artery—v Segmental Artery (Flve)—P Interlobar Artery» Arcurate Artery—e Interlobular Artery ——> Afferent Arteriole —-* Glomerulus _.__.___. Efferent Arteriole / One or the other \ Peritubulular Capillary Network Vasa Recta Capillary Network (Cortical glomemli~ majority of glomarull) (Juxtamedullary glomeruli) InterloLular Vein Arcurate Vein Arcuate Vein Interiobar Vein Interlotar Vein Renal Vein 1 Renal Vein ‘Hwayw mu ACIilaw mast Sumurall («lanai {HAM} '15“ hymn“. v ‘Eiyuwx mswn'ezw ‘ finial rnpunul v Ken: a tannin {swim-u: a ma w Cynuaa Mu: \ Hodul um; A And v intern] mac t — 1 . 32mm Swinle ' -" ‘PAfillUl‘: A n96 V . .' _ Gum- dalmm ' Blaédn {01:01.5 a ' and l Lane xtrhnnonsK 1mm.” '_ Tuluv mam ammmm “‘6' wow“..- -. 'WMWW,Wawm Figure 5 (Chapter 1) 8‘ W. Jacob, C A. Francone. and W_ JV Lossow "Simclure and Function in Man”. 4th Edition W B Saunders Company: Philadelphia, 1978‘ pl 494‘ $519150! {Wu were WU?“ 1 WI?! 52"” WA: Mum \ {mu-a mo ‘ saga-MM Wa52._ “W ~ ,, ' _ . - angm‘oup i I I ._.._ - . ' A mu M‘M’ma mm“ ".‘ -' -' W WWW 9 Mn AllRVm -- a» “cum “I!!!” tumors 95‘ um; mv/ .- . - W 11W!“ "77,211 . mwammmgut APERKJLEE Kt‘flfi we» Lemma tamsdr" WM}; moth Wulmm / "II. 565mm stein-tut» #m m Koran!» xmw" Figm 7 (Chapter 1) Y, H “Tilt C Yea Cle‘Clm 9f Mafia? 'illusimkm“, Volume 6. "Kidswyi, Dam. and mam madman». Pharmacmtkal (Tommy: Summn N1 197mm to Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Kidney Abdominal Aorta—> Renal Artery—v Segmental Artery (Five)—> Interlobar Artery—r Arcurate Artery—r Interlobular Artery —> Afferent Arteriole ——> Glomerulus ._._. Efferent Arteriole /One Of the other \ Peritubulular Capillary Network Vasa Recta Capillary Network (Cortical glomerull— majority of glomeruli) (Juxtamedullary glomeruli) Interlotular Vein Arcurate Vein 1 Arcuate Vein InteJobar Vein Interlobar Vein Renal Vein 1 Renal Vein M 2!»? ma weme mm mm as $906 mas-ms Sided t‘sws at‘mugh name» 4cm“ 2% WOW? mmwsr awry ~ ’ 3mm“ Amman «v gmmulm ~~ 99mm: mangle —v peritubuiw wtmws (mound rm MM} v~~ Mam”: WWW mm, FIgure 8 (Chapter 1): Diagram of VascuIature Going Into and Out of G|omeru|us C_P. Anthony and GA. Thibodeau 'Textbook of Anatomy and Physmlogy'fl Tenth Ed., The C. V Mosby Company: St Louis: 1979, p. 541, W “Mama W wa-51WWW_ mum awn; r W1 egg; i. m M..-. “amuww ,, § § Figure 9 ((‘hnpur 1}: Diagram 41! Filinfiau Mass in (Homcmma F 3!. mm 1Tb: Ciba (Manon M‘Madmé IQ‘iussmimz“, mm o. ‘Kimv wagers gnawing; filaddfl‘ (IRA memxul3L‘ASCOn1p3n} Summit. ‘31}, W7? p31? swarm macaw coil ‘ Wm warm. Spits-es; cs9 l Pancake Slit-pare figure 36—6. chW structure of the giomeruler membrane Figure 10 (Chapter 1): Simplified Diagram of Glomerular Membrane A‘ C. Guyton. “Textbook of Medical Physiology”, Seventh Edition, W. B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, 1986, p. 397 Layers of the Glomerular Membrane Capillary Endothelial Cells Sheets on Inside of capillary wall has many fenestrae (holes 500 - 1000 A In diameter) B) Basement Membrane Inner portion of kidney Course filter of glomerular membrane consisting of a meshwork of proteoglxcan flbrillae, colla en. and glycoprotelns that have large spaces through wh c plasma can fl er C) Epithelial Cell Barrier 1) Interdigitatlon of foot processes of podocytes Epithelial cells called podocytes protrude In branches eventually into small club shaped structures called foot processes. These interdigitate, with separation between the foot processes (called slit pores) being 250 to 400 A in width 2) Filtration Slit Membrane Layer 40-60 A thick of unknown material that is attached to the foot processes glvlng rectangular pores 40 by 140 A Acts as fine filter of glomerular membrane i‘éikf'k'fi,“ Hammad «firme mil Paw w r/ «mail If)!” a; ' mum»: weal: mum; m r m Figure 1! (Chaptcr I): What (he {ilamembr Membrane Actually Lacks Like lfigute (m left} 5’, i, Willmm and 8 Warwick (Edi) "thaw. Mummy”, Milt 910mm. “1 13 Salmch «jumpmy llhilarh’lrfilia, [030 {1 E35)“; ‘ Permeability, 0f Various substances through the glomerular membrane é Molecular Weight Permeability Example Substance 5200 1.00 lnulin 30,000 . Very small protein | 69,000 Albumin [substance in filtrate] ' ‘ permeability = _ = 1 (full permeablllty) [substance In plasma] = o (no permeability) i 1O Nu. m rmmptxmum «@11is , mass am: I’m WW women m: 35 Wm' «War mum w W! mum/idem gm“; m affirm: anemia» periman comrades (8100M: TN? momma «mum m We: Figure 8 (Chapter 1): Diagram of Vascuiature Going into and Out of Glomerulus CP Anthony and GA Thibodeau “Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology“, Tenth Ed, The C. V. Mosby Company: St. Louis: 1979, p 541. Order and Classification of Tubular System A) Proximal Tubule (starts after Bowman's Space) 1) Early Proximal Convoluted Tubule 2) Late Proximal Convoluted Tubule 3) Proximal Straight Segment (Pars Recta) B) Loop Of Henle (starts at medulla) 1) Descending Thin Segment 2) Ascending Thin Segment 3) Ascending Thick Segment C) Tubule (starts at point where tubular system passes by renal corpuscie) D) Connecting Segment E) Collecting Tubules 1) Cortical Collecting TUbUIE (starts at end of distal tubule) 2) Medullary Collecting Duct (starts at medulla ends at papilla) 11 fl Din” \\ canvolu led Proximal coma-Juice .’ Afferem and «rem-u umfiak; leggy»— rmn «mmnng Huck axendm; ‘ ltmh of loop limb or map (K Harrie ol “Inl€ (“tune 2 112m entrust/u hmb urn/up 1:! ’1an figure I»! Anatomic relnlionahfi 1 (thin and! V . . ps0 mcctmlponentpanxdd‘em: hmnl rd ’ Phyxwlngy, 2‘! ed” McGraw-Hl‘ll. New Yo'h I930 _\ p P ( fig." ‘1 L RV grad] Figure 12 (Chapter 1): Diagram of Tubular System of Nephron B.D. Rose ‘Cllnical Physiology ofAcld-Base and Electrolyte Dlsordevs', 3rd Edlllon, McGraw-Hill Information Services Company: New York, 1989, p213, Renal Ductule System from Medulla to Ureter r irrrqllbular systerh lhrough whichifitlrirle paeeee) Coalescing Collecting Ducts (as progress down medulla) L Eventuallgforms 10-25 large Collecting Ducts Capillary Ducts of ellini) at the apex (Papilla) of each enal Pyramid V Minor Calyx (2-3 Mlnor Calyces dralfl lnto each Major Calyx) V Major Calyx (There are 3 Major Calyces per kldney) L Renal Pelvis L Ureter 12 “$6.13 0mg: ‘v “009 Vému 997th Aim mumvm "“““*--t€wxx we}: IWWQ COW» w N. as: am M "“MXNOR unfit wwflmwww I Figure 6 (Chapter I] V. IL Ne: n “The (in: (folimron offlcdkgl litwmons 1 Yniume 6,, “Run: > , new», may; litmdder’ (ABA l'lwmaccmmzlifvmya mmmm‘ 51 £9 {a gym ' 1w was I s g ”i)>¢N’ aura-nub :( ‘n r V»!!! can) at _ «um .- nure u—z. A. the mom (From 5mm fie Gm" Sum, EU? and {mm In Mt” and W. New Von. 0H2“ Wham; m ms; ; a. was mm ; tonne N I “Amway, iwhmn {firm Ni» W a! n;- m ‘M Bow; rm (am Yea bow Md 9‘th Wu; Fig-m 13 (Chapkr l): afferent Nephron Types at C, Guyton. 'I‘cxtaook of Medical Physiology". 3mm 1 dkror. w, B. Saunders Company: Phfiadciphia. 1986. p. 3914 13 ' Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Kidney I Abdominal AOrta-> RenalArteryt—v Segmental Artery (Finn-b lnterlobar Artery» Arcurate Artery-v lnterlobular Artery —> Afferent Arteriole —~> Glomerulus Efferent Arteriole /One Of the other \ Peritubulular Capillary Network Vasa Recta Capillary Network (Cortical glomeruli— majority of glomeruli) (Juxtamedullary glomeruli) l lnterloLular Vein Arcurate Vein Arcuate Vein Interlobar Vein l l lnterlobar Vein Renal Vein 1 Renal Vein tamx mm 01‘) m .4 m; 4mm." ‘ Egan: normal" r. 01/1” «in: aux-w mu; m m. J neon“ MW’; m “M ml: m saw ‘ w am I‘m: “flay rm: gram rumua Mmmmu m. m... m up», M INAEK .HYDL‘LIA Jam n4 moan-1 9m «1... has» ‘71., M has iMmdnlmxn-mmrnudubwmmm WW Pym n: a!“ ram .1 m mm a, ma menu”, mmw‘mmm gummaa Imam.bi WMM’MIMMMMM any «mermaid may mum MmEanPmmtmn-m, mmawmnnmwmm_mmmmnnm Figure 15 (Chnptcr I) Diagram skewing Two Dith Capillary Syslcms Arising me Diffcrcnl Ncpbrwu ll‘erlmbular 3nd \‘m Rectal Ana" Kfl’enm Ann-loll: l" L, Mllzmu and R “(mick (Elk) "Oren/s Anmnmy'. 36th Editing u" n. Saunders Comma} Philadelphia, me. :9 i399 14 ’44.".1» ammm may; )hvlu' mm», Ivonne mu», m la’vr:chu‘ mmy figure M Scheumu’ a! a L'nduw Kubc uasi lxxlmév Figure I? (Chuptcr I): Diagram: of Kidney Lobnlc and Lab: C”, M. Dicnhan "Basic Human Annlamy and Physiok3g»’". B. Saunders Company: l’hiladclphia. l96?. p, 174‘ Figure 16 (Chapter 1): Another Diagram Showing Two Different Capillary Systems Arising From Different Nephruns (Peritubular and Vasa Recla) After Efferem Arten'ole E H Matter, "The Ciba Collection 01 Medical lllustratians", Volume 8, "Kidneys, Umters, and Urinary Bladder” ClBA Pharmaceutical Company: Summit, NJ, 1973, p.13, 15 ...
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Kidney Slides Lecture 1 Anatomy and Function PDF CHM 651 For Taking Notes Fall 2011 Final

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