02+ - P1: PBU/OVY JWCL234-02 P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 FAMILIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS: FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, AND INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 2.1 The four carbon atoms occupy different positions in the two representations (cf. rule 2, Sec. 1.8A). 2.2 F H (a) or F H δ+ δ− Br I (b) or Br I Br Br (c) μ = 0 D F F (d) μ = 0 D 2.3 VSEPR theory predicts a planar structure for BF 3 . B F F F μ = 0 D The vector sum of the bond moments of a trigonal planar structure would be zero, resulting in a prediction of μ = 0 D for BF 3 . This correlates with the experimental observation and con±rms the prediction of VSEPR theory. 2.4 The shape of CCl 2 CCl 2 (below) is such that the vector sum of all of the C Cl bond moments is zero. C C Cl Cl Cl Cl 2.5 The fact that SO 2 has a dipole moment indicates that the molecule is angular, not linear. O O S μ = 1.63 D μ = 0 D SO O not An angular shape is what we would expect from VSEPR theory, too. 19
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
20 FAMILIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS 2.6 Again, this is what VSEPR theory predicts. net dipole O H H 3 C 2.7 In CFCl 3 the large C F bond moment opposes the C Cl moments, leading to a net dipole moment in the direction of the ±uorine. Because hydrogen is much less electronegative than ±uorine, no such opposing effect occurs in CHCl 3 ; therefore, it has a net dipole moment that is larger and in the direction of the chlorine atoms. Smaller net dipole moment F Cl Cl Larger net dipole moment H Cl Cl C Cl C Cl 2.8 (a) C H H FF C net dipole moment (c) (d) net dipole moment C H H F F C (b) C H F H F C μ = 0 D C F F F F C μ = 0 D 2.9 (a) μ = 0 D net dipole moment C H HB r Br C Cis-trans isomers net dipole moment cis C HH Br Br C trans C H H Br Br C (b) μ = 0 D net dipole moment C Cl Cl Br Br C net dipole moment cis C Cl Cl Br Br C trans Cl Cl C Br Br C Cis-trans isomers
Background image of page 2
FAMILIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS 21 2.10 and (a) (b) (c) Br Br Br Br 2.11 (a) F (b) Cl (c) Propyl bromide (d) Isopropyl fuoride (e) Phenyl iodide 2.12 and (a) (b) OH OH (c) OH OH 2.13 (a) (b) OH OH 2.14 (a) O (b) O (c) O (d) Methyl propyl ether (e) Diisopropyl ether (±) Methyl phenyl ether 2.15 (a) Isopropylpropylamine (b) Tripropylamine (c) Methylphenylamine (d) Dimethylphenylamine (e) NH 2 (±) CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 3 ) 3 N or N (g) CH 3 N 2.16 (a) (e) only (b) (a, c) (c) (b, d, ±, g) 2.17 (a) CH 3 H Cl CH 3 CH 3 N CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 NH ++ + Cl (b) sp 3
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
22 FAMILIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS 2.18 O O + 2.19 (a) O H O H O H O H (b) O O O 2.20 O H O H O O O H H O H + B + HB C H C C O O C + The formate ion is more stabilized by resonance because its two resonance structures are equivalent (Rule 4, Sec. 1.8A). 2.21 O O O O O OH H O H O H 2.22 O O O O CH 3 O O CH 3 + others 2.23 O CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 O + CH 3 CH 3 C C O O
Background image of page 4
FAMILIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS 23 2.24 CH 3 NH 2 CH 3 NH 2 + C C O O 2.25 (a) OH would boil higher because its molecules can form hydrogen bonds to each other through the H O group. (b) CH 3 N H would boil higher because its molecules can form hydrogen bonds to each other through the H N group.
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 16

02+ - P1: PBU/OVY JWCL234-02 P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 6. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online