22 February 2011 Lecture

22 February 2011 Lecture - Relevant aspects of context...

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The Child and the State “Relevant aspects of context include social institutions, culture, social interaction, technology, macroeconomic and market forces, geography and the physical environment, and laws, regulations, and social policies” --Seltzer et al., 2005, Journal of Marriage and Family , p. 915
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Child and the State Overview Policy Concepts U.S. Welfare Reform Policies Parental Leave Policies: Balancing Work and Life Priorities Glass Ceiling Policies in Other Countries
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Key Policy Concepts
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Policy Concepts Universal vs. means-tested Categorical vs. non-categorical Entitlement vs. non-entitlement Elderly vs. children
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Universal vs. means-tested Universal Programs are available for everyone What are some examples? public schools, social security, Medicare Means-tested Income/need based policies AFDC/TANF, Medicaid, Food Stamps, SSI
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Categorical vs. non- categorical Categorical: available to people not defined by income…but by some other category Age – social security Fought in a war – VA program Children – special education
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Entitlement vs. non- entitlement Entitlement: programs that are given to everyone regardless of whether govt. can afford it or not Sometimes do ‘cap’ Social security, public schools Non-entitlement: government sets budgets, may or may not get it; most means-tested programs fall into this category
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Elderly vs. children Most programs for elderly are universal Less negative connotations Most programs for children are means- tested Negative overtones Great deal of antagonism against poor, especially poor women and children
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US Welfare Reform Policies
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Child and Family Policy Social welfare Any program with the goal of providing a minimum level of income, service, or other support for one or more marginalized groups Living in poverty Older persons Living with disabilities
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Brief History British Poor Laws Early US colonies used British poor laws Distinguished between Underemployed : able-bodied; were provided public service employment
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Brief History: Prior to the Great Depression Social workers went to poor and encouraged them to move to areas with more job opportunities Provided training on morals and work ethics Civil War Pension Program (1862) provided aid to veterans and their families
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U.S. Welfare Reform Policies Over last 30 years, trend toward increasing parents’ self-sufficiency by requiring and supporting employment Culminated in… Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA)
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U.S. Welfare Reform Policies Prior to 1935, assistance for poor families provided by private charities and government at state/local level Great Depression exceeded capacity of local efforts Social Security Act of 1935 (first national welfare legislation) Women who were widows of men covered could receive a percentage of their husbands’ benefits
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2011 for the course COMM 224 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UPenn.

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22 February 2011 Lecture - Relevant aspects of context...

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