3 Development 1 Cloning

3 Development 1 Cloning - New Applications and Recent...

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Unformatted text preview: New Applications and Recent Research in Developmental Biology: Is Cellular Differentiation Reversible? Evidence from Cloning Animals Evidence from Stem Cell Research Fig. 20-17 EXPERIMENT Less differ- entiated cell RESULTS Frog embryo Frog egg cell UV Donor nucleus trans- planted Frog tadpole Enucleated egg cell Egg with donor nucleus activated to begin development Fully differ- entiated (intestinal) cell Donor nucleus trans- planted Most develop into tadpoles Most stop developing before tadpole stage Cloning of Frogs by Nuclear Transplantation, Gurdon et al., 1975 Developmental stage achieved Blastula Tadpole Frog Donor blastula tadpoles adult ++++ +++ ++ ++++ ++(<2%) + ++++ +- Conclusions from Gurdons Experiments: The ability of the nucleus of a frog cell to direct development decreases as the donor cell becomes more differentiated Nuclear Transfer Success Decreases as Donor Cells Differentiate From: Gurdon and Melton (2008) Nuclear Reprogramming of Cells, Science Vol 322, 1811-1815. Fig. 20-18Fig....
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3 Development 1 Cloning - New Applications and Recent...

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