3 Development 1 Cloning

3 Development 1 Cloning - New Applications and Recent...

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New Applications and Recent Research in Developmental Biology: Is Cellular Differentiation Reversible? • Evidence from Cloning Animals • Evidence from Stem Cell Research
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Fig. 20-17 EXPERIMENT Less differ- entiated cell RESULTS Frog embryo Frog egg cell UV Donor nucleus trans- planted Frog tadpole Enucleated egg cell Egg with donor nucleus activated to begin development Fully differ- entiated (intestinal) cell Donor nucleus trans- planted Most develop into tadpoles Most stop developing before tadpole stage Cloning of Frogs by Nuclear Transplantation, Gurdon et al., 1975
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Developmental stage achieved Blastula Tadpole Frog Donor blastula tadpoles adult ++++ +++ ++ ++++ ++(<2%) + ++++ + - Conclusions from Gurdon’s Experiments: The ability of the nucleus of a frog cell to direct development decreases as the donor cell becomes more differentiated
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Nuclear Transfer Success Decreases as Donor Cells Differentiate From: Gurdon and Melton (2008) “Nuclear Reprogramming of Cells”, Science Vol 322, 1811-1815.
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Fig. 20-18 TECHNIQUE Mammary cell donor RESULTS
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