7 Digestion 3 Process of digestion and absorption

7 Digestion 3 Process of digestion and absorption -...

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Unformatted text preview: Digestion I. Exchange with the environment II. Malnourishment and Overnourishment III. Digestive organs IV. Process of digestion and absorption A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Lipids D. Absorption of water Fig. 41.10: The Human Digestive System Cecum Anus Anus Ascending portion of large intestine Gall- bladder Small intestine Large intestine Small intestine Rectum Pancreas Liver Salivary glands Tongue Oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Sphincter Stomach Sphincter Duodenum of small intestine Appendix Liver Pancreas Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Stomach Gall- bladder A schematic diagram of the human digestive system Esophagus Salivary glands Mouth Carbohydrate Digestion (digestible) (animal starch) Protein digestion Nucleic acid digestion Fat digestion Proteins Pepsin Small polypeptides Polypeptides Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin (These proteases cleave bonds adjacent to certain amino acids.) Smaller polypeptides Pancreatic carboxypeptidase Amino acids Small peptides Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase (These proteases split off one amino acid at a time, working from opposite ends of a polypeptide.) Amino acids DNA, RNA Pancreatic nucleases Nucleotides Nucleotidases Nucleosides Nucleosidases and phosphatases Nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Fat globules (Insoluble in water, fats aggregate as globules.) Bile salts Fat droplets (A coating of bile salts prevents small drop- lets from coalescing into larger globules, increasing exposure to lipase.) Pancreatic lipase Glycerol, fatty acids, glycerides Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus Carbohydrate digestion Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) Disaccharides (sucrose, lactose) Salivary amylase Smaller polysaccharides, maltose Stomach Protein digestion Nucleic acid digestion Fat digestion Proteins Pepsin Small polypeptides Lumen of small intes- tine Polysaccharides Pancreatic amylases Maltose and other disaccharides Epithelium of small intestine (brush border) Disaccharidases Monosaccharides Polypeptides Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin (These proteases cleave bonds adjacent to certain...
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2011 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '09 term at UPenn.

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7 Digestion 3 Process of digestion and absorption -...

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