10 Immune System 1 Innate

10 Immune System 1 Innate - Barrier Defenses: Physical...

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The Immune System I. Innate Immunity A. Barrier Defenses B. Internal Defenses II. Acquired Immunity A. The lymphatic system B. Antigen recognition by lymphocytes C. Clonal Selection D. Immunological Memory and Vaccines E. Helper T cells and cytokines F. How cytotoxic T cells kill G. How antibodies inactivate antigen H. Examples of acquired immune responses
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Fig. 43.2: An Overview of Animal Immunity INNATE IMMUNITY Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors •Rapid response •Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors •Slower response ACQUIRED IMMUNITY Pathogens (microorganisms and viruses) Barrier defenses: Skin Mucous membranes Secretions Internal defenses: Phagocytic cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response Natural killer cells Humoral response: Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids. Cell-mediated response: Cytotoxic lymphocytes defend against infection in body cells.
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Unformatted text preview: Barrier Defenses: Physical barriers and hostile chemical conditions skin and mucous membranes physically prevent entry of pathogens secretions include enzymes (lysozyme) and acid (skin, stomach) that kill pathogens Example: Cilia and mucous help block entry of pathogens in the trachea Fig. 42.19: Differentiation of Blood Cells high turnover of blood cells (days to months) Stem cells (in bone marrow) Myeloid stem cells Lymphoid stem cells Lymphocytes B cells T cells Erythrocytes Platelets Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils Monocytes innate immunity acquired immunity Internal Defenses: Phagocytosis, antimicrobial proteins and the inflammatory response Bacteria phagocytosed by a human neutrophil A macrophage phagocytosing a yeast cell Fig. 43.8: The Inflammatory Response Pathogen Splinter Macrophage Mast cell Chemical signals Capillary Phagocytic cell Red blood cells Fluid Phagocytosis...
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10 Immune System 1 Innate - Barrier Defenses: Physical...

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