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BFMDPresentation1 - Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)...

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Syphilis ( Treponema  pallidum) Presented by  Jare Melanie  Philip Adapted from 
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Why Study Syphilis? Major Public Health  concern Numbers of cases  have not declined  dramatically in past  ten years Nature of the  disease: Elusive Latent phase Concurrent  infections with HIV
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“The Great Imitator” Syphilis is non specific  Often mistaken for other diseases Lyme Disease Fibromyalgia Sarcoidosis Gonorrhea Diagnosis is difficult especially in latent phase
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Historical Background Prehistoric and Ancient References Description of disease characterized by chancres in  Chinese writing from 2000 B.C 1495 - First Epidemic Recorded: “The Great Pox”  Started in France and spread to Italy. Blame placed on prostitutes and soldiers Other nationalities thought to harbor disease “French Disease” in Italy and Germany “Italian Disease” in France “Spanish Disease” in the Netherlands
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Syphilis or Gonorrhea?: The  John Hunter Experiment  1767 Purpose: To determine  if the “poison” that  caused syphilis was the  same that caused  gonorrhea Injected pus from  gonorrhea into patient. Patient developed  chancres and rashes Did not realize patient 
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Historical Timeline 1905  –  Treponema  Pallidum  identified  by 
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Debate of historical origin Colombian Exchange Theory   Syphilis brought to Europe from New World by  Columbus Pre-Colombian Theory   Syphilis present in Europe before discovery of  Americas Combination Theory  Both Theories are correct.  Common ancestor of syphilis in New and Old  World. 
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Phylogeny
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Bejel Yaws Pinta Syphilis
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Morphology Spirochetes:  gram-negative 0.2 µm in width and 5- 15 µm in length  helically–coiled Chemoheterotrophic Microaerophilic
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Morphology: Motility Endoflagella makes it actively motile corkscrew motility: rotates about its axis 
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Morphology: The outer sheath  Glycosaminoglycan outer sheath with few  surface proteins helps bacteria evade detection Hyaluronidase helps enhance invasiveness of organism
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Optimal Environment Requires the presence of tissue culture cells  and a micro aerobic environment Humans are the major natural host Can survive in pH range of 7.2 -7.4 Temperature: 30-37 C Can not survive in dry or cold conditions. 
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Small circular chromosome – 1.14 million base  pairs
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BFMDPresentation1 - Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)...

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