Research Methods Types of Methods 1. Experimental 2. Quasi-experimental (correlational) 3. Qualitative 1. Experimental This is the only methodology that allows cause-effect statements, but it can have low external validity (may not apply to the real world). However, experimental studies can be done in the field (e.g., schools, elections). 4 requirements 1) Random Selection of Subjects (doesn’t usually happen)2) Random Assignment of Subjects to conditions (controls for individual differences). 3) Manipulation—experimenter must be responsible for changes in the independent variable. 4) Control—achieve through standardization---make everything the same for everyone except the independent variable. If possible, the experimenter should use the same research assistant, run experiment in the same room, and approximately at the same time during the day. All of these components ensure there are no systematic differences between groups (except the independent variable).
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