Section_5_Notes

Section_5_Notes - Cognitive Neuroscience Section 5 Memory...

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Cognitive Neuroscience Section 5 Memory is stored knowledge about the internal and external environments; it includes perceptual and motor knowledge.
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Review of classical classification of learning and memory 1. Learning a. Associative learning Involves relations among different stimulus types. i. Classical conditioning: association of initially neutral stimulus with a physiological response. Also called Pavlovian conditioning from Pavlov's famous experiment pairing light and sound stimuli with salivation response. Before conditioning: US produces UR; CS produces no effect. Conditioning involves paired presentation of CS with US. After conditioning: CS produces CR (same as UR). ii. Operant conditioning: association of behavior and its consequences (how to "operate" something). Animal has to perform some task to achieve a goal. Each response is followed by a reinforcement or punishment.
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b. Non-associative learning Involves experience with only a single stimulus type. i. Habituation: decrement in magnitude of a response to repeated stimulation ii. Sensitization: progressive amplification of a response to repeated stimulation (e.g. repeated scratching of skin becomes painful) iii. Imprinting: formation of fixed behaviors during critical period, usually in early life
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2. Memory a. Explicit vs implicit i. Explicit or Declarative memory Cognitive memory involving recognition of sensory patterns, attachment of emotional value & in humans the ability to describe details about time, place & circumstance. It is accessible to conscious recollection and available to multiple response systems. It is relatively fast & may occur with only 1 presentation. It often involves association of simultaneous stimuli. ii. Implicit or Procedural memory Behavioral memory resulting from learning a skill or operation. Includes several kinds of abilities, all of which are unconscious and expressed through performance. It is slow & accumulates through repetition over many trials.
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b. Temporal scale These are approximate phenomenological categories -- not necessarily different mechanisms. i. Iconic memory: lasts on a time scale of a few seconds -- related to continued activity in sensory system. Sometimes referred to as storage in a "sensory buffer". ii. Short-term memory: lasts on a time scale of seconds to minutes -- e.g. number sequences iii. Intermediate-term memory: lasts on a time scale of hours to days -- e.g. environmental positional relations iv. Long-term memory: lasts on a time scale of weeks to years -- relatively permanent
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c. Stages of processing i. Encoding : transfer of information from sensory buffers to STM. ii. Consolidation : formation and gradual strengthening of LTM. iii.
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2011 for the course ISC 5465 taught by Professor Bressler during the Fall '11 term at FAU.

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Section_5_Notes - Cognitive Neuroscience Section 5 Memory...

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