10 Immune System 2 Acquired

10 Immune System 2 Acquired - The Immune System I. Innate...

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The Immune System I. Innate Immunity A. Barrier Defenses B. Internal Defenses II. Acquired Immunity A. The lymphatic system B. Antigen recognition by lymphocytes C. Clonal Selection D. Immunological Memory and Vaccines E. Helper T cells and cytokines F. How cytotoxic T cells kill G. How antibodies inactivate antigen H. Examples of acquired immune responses
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Acquired Immunity: pathogen-specific • Involves T and B lymphocytes and other cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. • How do lymphocytes recognize infection? Same way police recognize suspects: • look wrong (antibody response via B cells; humoral immunity) • complaints from neighbors (cell-mediated response via T cells) • Antigen (Antibody generator): • a foreign molecule that elicits a specific response by lymphocytes • examples: viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasitic worms, surface of pollen, transplanted tissue, cancer cells
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Overview of the Acquired Immune Response
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Fig. 43.7: The Human Lymphatic System Fig. 43.7 Adenoid Tonsil Lymph nodes Spleen Peyer’s patches (small intestine) Appendix Lymphatic vessels Lymph node Masses of defensive cells Blood capillary Lymphatic vessel Tissue cells Interstitial fluid
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Humoral Immunity: The Antibody Response • Antibodies are adapted to extracellular antigens: - bacteria, toxins, surface proteins of viruses and parasites • Structure of an antibody molecule:
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Fig. 43.9a Antigen- binding site Antigen- binding site Disulfide bridge Variable regions Constant regions Transmembrane region Plasma membrane Light chain Heavy chains Cytoplasm of B cell (a) B cell receptor B cell V C C C Antibodies are found on the surface of B cells and in a soluble form in the blood and lymph (the “humors”)
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Antigen- Binding site β chain Disulfide bridge α chain T cell A T cell receptor consists of one α chain and one β chain linked by a disulfide bridge. (b) Variable regions Constant regions Transmembrane region Plasma membrane Cytoplasm of T cell Cell-Mediated Immunity: The T Cell Response • Cytotoxic T cells attack abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells: bacteria, parasites, and viruses inside cells and cancer cells. T cell receptors bind to small fragments of antigens that are bound to
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10 Immune System 2 Acquired - The Immune System I. Innate...

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