11 Osmoregulation 3 Mammalian Kidney

11 Osmoregulation 3 Mammalian Kidney - Osmoregulation and...

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Osmoregulation and Excretion I. Waste Disposal II. Osmotic Regulation III. The Mammalian Kidney A. Overall Structure, Functions and Mechanisms B. The Nephron Segments C. How Urine is Concentrated D. Regulation of Kidney Function by Hormones
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The Mammalian Kidney Functions: • retrieval (reabsorption) of desirable substances • concentration of urine (to avoid dehydration) via loop of Henle (only in birds and mammals) • removal of wastes (excreted in urine) • intense blood flow to kidneys: 20% of cardiac output, 1600 L/day!! • huge surface area: 10 6 nephrons, 80 km of tubules! • in humans: 85% cortical nephrons 15% juxtamedullary nephrons
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(b) Kidney structure Ureter Section of kidney from a rat Renal medulla Renal cortex Renal pelvis Structure of the Kidney The mammalian kidney has two distinct regions: an outer renal cortex and an inner renal medulla The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney
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The Journey of Blood in the Nephron Figure 44.14c, d Juxta- medullary nephron Cortical nephron Collecting duct To renal pelvis Renal cortex Renal medulla 20 µm Afferent arteriole from renal artery Glomerulus Bowman’s capsule Proximal tubule Peritubular capillaries SEM Efferent arteriole from glomerulus Branch of renal vein Descending limb Ascending limb Loop of Henle Distal tubule Collecting duct (c) Nephron Vasa recta (d) Filtrate and blood flow
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Process of urine production
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11 Osmoregulation 3 Mammalian Kidney - Osmoregulation and...

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