Lecture 2 HN 300-1 - Evaluation of Food Lecture 2 HN 300...

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Evaluation of Food Lecture 2 HN 300
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Why Evaluate Food? Every time a food is eaten, a judgement is made. Whether or not it is conscious or not, the consumer decides that the food in question is or is not of acceptable quality. So, food companies are constantly trying to stay on top of consumer preferences. Additionally, food is tested for research purposes and for quality assurance.
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Where Does Evaluation Fit In? Development of New Products Maintaining Quality Control in Existing Food Items
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Typical Evaluation of New Products First, in-house testing is conducted to determine the acceptability of the product to the staff. Next, the product is tested in a focus group of 4-12. The individuals fit the specific demographic characteristics of interest to the food company. Then, large scale (200-500 consumers) testing is conducted at a central location or through an in-home test of the product.
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Evaluation of New Products, cont… Then, the product is market tested in a small area to obtain information from a selected sampling of the potential market. Finally, the results of the test marketing determine whether the product should be released to the general market, discontinued, or modified prior to general marketing.
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Two Types of Evaluation: Sensory or Subjective Evaluation Objective Evaluation
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Sensory (Subjective) Evaluation A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret those responses to products (foods and materials) that are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. It is also called subjective evaluation, because individual decisions based on the use of the senses determine the scores, not mechanical devices.
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What can sensory evaluation be used for? Product development or reformulation Quality control Quality assurance Product sensory specification Raw materials sensory specification Product optimization Support for advertising claims (Think of the commercials we see on a regular basis.)
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Brief Review of the Anatomy and Physiology Behind Sensory Testing Smell, Taste, Sight
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Olfaction Odor is an important preliminary cure to the acceptability of a food before that food enters the mouth Odor = a volatile (gas or vapor) chemical compound Olfactory Receptors: Nasal organs capable of detecting aromas Chemical molecules enter the nose and dissolve in mucous within a membrane called the olfactory epithelium (a yellow, mucous-coated area).
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Three ways volatile compounds can be brought into contact with the olfactory receptors: 1) Sniffing a food or its headspace 2) Swallowing the food (creates a partial vacuum that draws the volatiles into the nose from the oral cavity) 3) Deliberately exhaling sharply after swallowing the food.
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Olfaction is very keen and varied: The nose can detect the presence of some odors at a concentration as low as 10 -19 M.
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2011 for the course HUMAN NUTR 300 taught by Professor Staver during the Spring '11 term at Ill. Chicago.

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Lecture 2 HN 300-1 - Evaluation of Food Lecture 2 HN 300...

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