Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Sweeteners B-3

Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Sweeteners B-3 -...

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1 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Sweeteners Science of Food
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2 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Physical Properties of Sugars Sweetness Sweetness is variable among sugars Hygroscopicity The ability of sugars to attract and hold water. Solubility The amount of sugar that will go into solution in water varies with: type of sugar temperature of the water Important for food texture
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3 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions Hydrolysis Degradation Carmelization The Maillard Reaction
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4 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions Hydrolysis Disaccharides undergo hydrolysis when heated Invert sugar – reaction forming glucose and fructose from sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 (sucrose) + H 2 O (water) = C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + C 6 H 12 O 6 (fructose) Occurs during the normal preparation of candies. Its extent is influenced by the rate of cooking and ingredients used.
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5 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions Degradation Opening of the ring structures as prelude to the breakdown of sugars Can occur in acid or alkaline medium
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6 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions Caramelization When sugars are heated to such high temperatures that they begin to melt Leads to pleasing color and flavor changes Begins with inversion of sucrose After the ring structures are broken in the components of the invert sugar, some condensation occurs, which creates polymers ranging in size from trisaccharides to oligosaccharides.
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7 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions Caramelization Can be halted quickly by adding boiling water Acids are created during caramelization
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8 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions The Maillard Reaction Occurs when a protein and a sugar are heated or stored together for some time. Involves the condensation of a reducing sugar and an amine. Reducing sugars: glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose Color changes occur slowly and with
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9 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners
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10 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Chemical Reactions The Maillard Reaction Color changes occur slowly and with less energy input than in caramelization Progress from colorless substance→ golden color → reddish brown → dark brown Colored pigments formed are called melanoidins Examples: caramels, browning of the crust of a plain or white cake, heating sweetened condensed milk
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11 Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Sweeteners Functional Properties of Sugars Sweetness The sweet taste of sugar is used to varying degrees in food products Color Products with sugar heated to high temps for extended time period change color Chemical breakdown of the sugar Maillard reaction (caramels) Caramelization (brittles and toffee)
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12 Monosaccharides,
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