Enzymes - 2007-2008AP BiologyMetabolism &...

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Unformatted text preview: 2007-2008AP BiologyMetabolism & EnzymesAP BiologyFrom food webs to the life of a cellenergyenergyenergyAP BiologyFlow of energy through lifeLife is built on chemical reactionstransforming energy from one form to anotherorganic moleculesATP & organic moleculesorganic moleculesATP & organic moleculessunsolar energyATP& organic moleculesAP BiologyMetabolismChemical reactions of lifeforming bondsbetween moleculesdehydration synthesissynthesisanabolic reactionsbreaking bondsbetween moleculeshydrolysisdigestioncatabolic reactionsThats why theyre calledanabolicsteroids! AP BiologyExamples dehydration synthesis (synthesis)hydrolysis (digestion)+H2O+H2OenzymeenzymeAP BiologyExamples dehydration synthesis (synthesis)hydrolysis (digestion)enzymeenzymeAP BiologyChemical reactions & energySome chemical reactions release energyexergonicdigesting polymershydrolysis = catabolismSome chemical reactions require input of energyendergonicbuilding polymers dehydration synthesis = anabolismdigesting molecules= LESS organization=lower energy statebuilding molecules= MORE organization=higher energy stateAP BiologyEndergonic vs. exergonic reactionsexergonicendergonic- energy released- digestion-energy invested-synthesis-GG = change in free energy = ability to do work+GAP BiologyEnergy & lifeOrganisms require energy to live where does that energy come from?couplingexergonic reactions(releasing energy) with endergonic reactions(needing energy)++energy+energy+digestionsynthesisAP BiologyWhat drives reactions?If reactions are downhill, why dont they just happen spontaneously?because covalent bonds are stable bonds Why dontstable polymersspontaneouslydigest into theirmonomers?starchAP BiologyActivation energyBreaking down large molecules requires an initial input of energyactivation energylarge biomolecules are stablemust absorb energy to break bonds energycelluloseCO2+ H2O + heatAP BiologyToo much activation energy for lifeActivation energyamount of energy needed to destabilize the bonds of a moleculemoves the reaction over an energy hillNot a match!Thats too much energy to exposeliving cells to!glucoseAP BiologyReducing Activation energyCatalystsreducing the amount of energy to start a reactionPheeewthat takes a lotlessenergy!reactantproductuncatalyzed reactioncatalyzed reactionNEW activation energyAP BiologyCatalystsSo whats a cell got to do to reduce activation energy?get help! chemical helpENZYMESGCall in the ENZYMES!AP BiologyEnzymes Biological catalysts proteins (& RNA)facilitate chemical reactionsincrease rate of reaction without being consumedreduce activation energydont change free energy (G) released or requiredrequired for most biological reactionshighly specificthousands of different enzymes in cellscontrol reactionsof lifeAP Biology...
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Enzymes - 2007-2008AP BiologyMetabolism &...

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