politicsFa09handout.docANTH - Elman Services Ecological...

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Elman Service’s Ecological Scheme of Political Organization In this scheme the important dimensions of political organization are: What type of authority that exists? Are political institutions a distinct part of society? What amount of political integration exists? For Service there is a continuum of political structures in the world that are associated with different subsistence strategies. Cross-culturally there are four main types of political organization. They are Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States. The key characteristics of each of these types of political organization are listed below. 1. Band a. It is an egalitarian social group that lacks specialization b. Associated with foraging societies c. Have flexible membership with kinship as the primary basis of membership d. No formal leadership positions, Experienced people with specific skills act as informal advisors in specific situations. Decisions made by consensus. Personalistic leadership e. No stratification between leader and followers
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politicsFa09handout.docANTH - Elman Services Ecological...

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