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13+Descriptive+Statistics

13+Descriptive+Statistics - Statistics Ron Sandwina PhD...

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Introduction to Descriptive  Statistics  Or how I learned to conquer  math anxiety and embrace all  that is righteous and good  about numbers Ron Sandwina, PhD Communication Studies Department IUPUI

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It’s boring…………

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Has lots of numbers and funny  symbols…. Mean x Variance Sigma Squared Std. Dev. Sigma s Correlation  r ANOVA ANACOVA MANOVA ANNA KOURNICOVA 2 2 E ) p 1 ( p z n - =
Statistics are evil! People lie with  statistics. There are lies-- There are damn lies-- And there are statistics Benjamin Disraeli, British Prime Minister

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Homer Simpson does not like  them…
From a Simpsons episode : Homer is questioned about his newly formed vigilante group Newscaster: Since your group started up, petty crime is down 20%, but other crimes are up, such as heavy sack beating which is up 800%. So you’re actually increasing crime. Homer: You can make up statistics to prove anything. 43% of people know that.

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So, what are statistics? “Statistics describes a set of tools and techniques that is used for describing, organizing, and interpreting information or data” (Salkind, p. 8, 2004).
Uses of Statistics n Statistics are used to make general statements about a sample or population. n Statistics DO NOT help us understand the individual experiences of one person. n Statistics are used to reach conclusions about the differences between groups. n Statistics are used to determine if variables are related to each other

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Definitions Population: The entire collection of individuals or objects about which information is desired. Sample: A part (subset) of the population selected in some prescribed manner. Representative Sample: A random selection of data chosen from the target population which exhibits characteristics typical of the population. Variable: A characteristic or property of an individual unit in the population.
Data Used for Statistics Comes from  Measurements of Observations n There are four types of measurements q Nominal q Ordinal q Interval q Ratio

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Two Types of Data n Nonparametric q Data from nominal or ordinal measures are classified as categorical, or nonparametric n Parametric q Data from interval or ratio measures are classified as continuous, or parametric
There are two types of statistics n Descriptive q Descriptive statistics serve to summarize data through reduction and simplification of numbers. n Inferential q Inferential Statistics are used to make an inference, or generalization, about a population from an sample .

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Descriptive Statistics Includes: Collecting data Organizing data Summarizing data Descriptive Inferential Statistics Used when you want to describe some characteristic of a population or sample.
Examples of Descriptive Statistics n You take an exam. When the exam is returned what information do you want to know so you can see how well you did compared to others?

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