week05_lecture05 - 21M011 (spring, 2006) Ellen T. Harris...

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21M011 (spring, 2006) Ellen T. Harris Lecture V Classical Era (1750-1800) 1. Enlightenment: the application of rational, “scientific” principles to the social contract (morality, education and politics), especially in terms of social injustice/breaking down of monarchical and aristocratic societies/ so-called “rise of the middle class”/ freedom of religion/ understanding of market economy Great thinkers of the age include: Immanuel Kant, Rousseau, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson 1776: American Revolution 1789: French Revolution Literature: continued expansion of the novel, examining social forces, women writers: Frances Burney (1752-1840); Jane Austen (1775-1817) 2. “Classical” refers to the parallel “neo-classical” period in the visual arts and architecture that was hugely influenced by Classical Greek and Roman models Classical revival: a reaction against the extravagance and exuberance of the Baroque (which term was first used as a derogatory description meaning misshapen black pearl) toward order and symmetry Various stimuli for these trends, in particular these two: •archaeology: the excavations in Pompeii began in 1748; excavations in Greece began in 1751 led to the book The Antiquities of Athens (1762+); Winkelmann’s A History of the Art of the Ancients (1764) •architecture: revival of Palladian style of the Renaissance (this period itself considered a “rebirth” of classical ideals; Andreas Palladio, an Italian architect of the 16 th century who attempted to recreate the style and proportions of the buildings of ancient Rome) Art: Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) studied classical literature, went to Rome to study Graeco-Roman sculpture; famous for his portraits, “formal rhetoric”; Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788); Jean-Honoré Fragonard (domestic “hedonism”; Jacques Louis David (1748-1825) a painter of classical images, firm supporter of the revolution Music influenced by both the “enlightenment” and “classical” traditions of this period •public concerts: opera houses and concert halls •opera: development of comic opera, depiction of contemporary, social life (rather than
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course MUSIC 189 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '07 term at MIT.

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week05_lecture05 - 21M011 (spring, 2006) Ellen T. Harris...

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