Pisoni_Training_III_1994

Pisoni_Training_III_1994 - Training Japanese listeners to...

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Training Japanese listeners to identify English/r/and fl/. III. Long-term retention of new phonetic categories Scott E. Lively and David B. Pisoni Speech Research Laboratory., Department of P.sychologs• Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-1301 Reiko A. Yamada and Yoh'ichi Tohkura ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories, Kyoto, Japan Tsuneo Yamada Department of Behavioral Engineering, Faculty of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan (Received 24 June 1993; revised 9 May 1994; accepted 10 May 1994) Monolingual speakers of Japanese were trained to identify English/r/and/I/using Logan et al. 's [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 874-886 (1991)] high-variability training procedure. Subjects' performance improved from the pretest to the post-test and during the 3 weeks of training. Performance during training varied as a function of talker and phonetic environment. Generalization accuracy to new words depended on the voice of the talker producing the/r/-/l/contrast: Subjects were significantly more accurate when new words were produced by a familiar talker than when new words were produced by an unfamiliar talker. This difference could not be attributed to differences in intelligibility of the stimuli. Three and six months after the conclusion of training, subjects returned to the laboratory and were given the post-test and tests of generalization again. Performance was surprisingly good on each test after 3 months without any further training: Accuracy decreased only 2% from the post-test given at the end of training to the post-test given 3 months later. Similarly, no significant decrease in accuracy was observed for the tests of generalization. After 6 months without training, subjects' accuracy was still 4.5% above pretest levels. Performance on the tests of generalization did not decrease and significant differences were still observed between talkers. The present results suggest that the high-variability training paradigm encourages a long-term modification of listeners' phonetic perception. Changes in perception are brought about by shifts in selective attention to the acoustic cues that signal phonetic contrasts. These modifications in attention appear to be retrained over time, despite the fact that listeners are not exposed to the/r/-/1/ contrast in their native language environment. PACS numbers: 43.71.Hw, 43.71.Es, 43.71.An INTRODUCTION Recent studies on the perception of English/r/and/1/by native speakers of Japanese have demonstrated that simple laboratory procedures can be used to modify phonetic per- ception in adult listeners (Lively et al., 1991,1993; Logan et al., 1991; Pisoni et al., 1994). We chose to examine the /r/-/!/ contrast because it has been argued that contrasts based on spectral cues, such as/r/-/l/, may be much more difficult for listeners to acquire than contrasts based on tem- poral cues, such as distinctions using voice onset time (Strange and Dittmann, 1984; Strange and Jenkins, 1978). Thus, experiments
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course LIN 4930 taught by Professor Habib,r during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Pisoni_Training_III_1994 - Training Japanese listeners to...

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