It is well known that the speech signal contains features which can be used
to provide information about a human speaker.
“Voice identification” is based on
one of these sets of features as numerous speaker specific phonatory properties
have been discovered (see among many others: Hollien, 1990, 2002; Hollien and
Schwartz, 2002; Kuenzel, 1994; Nolan, 1983; Stevens, 1971).
Another such area
involves the detection of alcohol intoxication as it is reflected in voice and speech.
Here too, a substantial amount of research has been reported which describes
these relationships (see among many others: Chin and Pisoni, 1997; Hollien et al,
1998, 2001 a and b; Klingholtz et al, 1988; Pisoni and Martin, 1997).
emotion (including psychological stress) constitutes yet a third domain where
behaviors can be detected in voice (see among others: Cummings and Clements,
1980; Hicks and Hollien, 1981; Hollien, 1980, 1990; Scherer, 1981, 1986;
Williams and Stevens, 1972).
The neurological bases for the relationships described above also are
reasonably well established.
That is, since the speech act represents the output of
a number of high level and integrated neurological systems (sensory, cognitive,
motor), it appears appropriate to assume that the process may reflect a variety of
Specifically, since the oral production of any language involves
the use of multiple sensory modalities, high level cognitive functioning, complex