05-0c Chronology Israel History

05-0c Chronology Israel History - Chronological Chart of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chronological Chart of Israel from the Early Bronze to the Roman Period† Period/Date Early Bronze / Canaanite Age (3150-2200 BCE) Israel – Biblical Figures – Middle Bronze Age (2200-1550 BCE) Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 BCE) Iron/Israelite Age I (1200-1000 BCE) Abraham Isaac Jacob Exodus from Egypt Covenant at Sinai Iron Age IIa / Kingdom of Israel Saul (1020-1000) (1000-900 BCE) 1000 David (1000-962) Solomon (961-922) Moses • Canaanite fortified city-states. • Canaan under Egyptian rule. → Armarna letters • Kingdoms of Edom and Moab founded → Merneptah's stele mentions "Israel" (ca. 1220) Joshua Gideon Deborah Samson • The Philistines (“Sea Peoples") invade Canaan and establish their cities along the Mediterranean coast. • Hittite Empire Falls (cf. Hittite Vassal Treaties) • Israelites struggle with the Philistines • David conquers Jerusalem (ca. 1000) → City of David excavations uncover → Tel Dan inscription mentions the house of David (?) • Solomon builds first temple and walls of Jerusalem • Economic and cultural prosperity; "Solomonic Enlightenment" → Solomonic Gates at Gezer, Hazor, Meggido Division of Kingdom (922 BCE) Judah Israel Rehoboam (922-915) Jeroboam I (922-901) Abijah (915-913) Nadab (901-900) 900 Asa (913-873) Baasha (900-877) Jehoshaphat (873-849) Jehoram (849-842) Ahaziah (842) Athaliah (842-837) Jehoash (837-800) 800 Amaziah (800-783) Uzziah (783-742) Jotham (742-735) Ahaz (735-715) Elah (877-876) Zimri (876) Omri (876-869) Ahab (869-850) Ahaziah (850-849) Jehoram (849-842) Jehu (842-815) Joahaz (815-801) Jehoash (801-786) Jeroboam II (786-746) Zechariah (746-745) Shallum (745) Menahem (745-738) Pekahiah (738-737) Pekah (737-732) Hoshea (732-724) Fall of Samaria (721) 700 Hezekiah (715-687) Manasseh (687-642) Amon (642-640) Josiah (640-609) Jehoahaz II / Shallum (609) 600 Jehoiakim / Eliakim (609-598) Jehoiachin / Jeconiah (598-597) Zedekiah / Mattaniah (597-587) Fall of Jerusalem/Destruction of Temple (587) Exile in Babylon (587-538) Gedaliah (Govenor) (587) † • Small city-states. • Hyksos invasion of Canaan and Egypt (ca. 1720) Johnathan Nathan Invasion of Canaan Rule by Judges Samuel Iron Age IIb / Fall of Israel and Judah (900-586 BCE) Other Relevant Items • Flourishing urban culture in Canaan. • Law codification in Mesopotamia, as well as Epic, and religious texts. • International trade routes crossing Canaan bringing Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences. Prepared by Tyler F. Williams (1997). Elijah Micaiah Elisha Jehoiada Amos Hosea • Time of prosperity in Israel. • Assyrian expansion under Tiglath-pileser III (745-727) • Syro-Ephraimite war: Assyria crushes anti-Assyrian league and strips N. Kingdom of territories (734-732) Isaiah Micah → Hezekiah expands Jerusalem's water supply via tunnel • Led by Sennacherib, Assyria ravages Judah; and unsuccessfully sieges Jerusalem (701) Zephaniah Jeremiah Nahum Habbakuk • Babylon throws off Assyrian rule (626) • Fall of Ninevah (612) Ezekiel (Isaiah 40-55) • Rise of Cyrus (556) Period/Date Iron Age III / Persian Period (586-332 BCE) Israel Biblical Figures Sheshbazzar (538) Zerubbabel (538-510) Joshua Haggai Other Relevant Items • Fall of Babylon (539) • Return from Babylonian captivity in the reign of Cyrus (537). • Construction of second temple; dedicated (515). • Judah becomes a Persian province – Yehud. Zechariah 500 Ezra's mission (458) Nehemiah's first mission (445-433) Nehemiah's second mission (431-?) Malachi • Alexander the Great conquers the Near East (334-323) Joel (?) 400 Hellenistic Period Persian rule replaced by Greek rule (332-135 BCE) Rule by the Ptolemies of Egypt (323-200) 300 • "Hellenization" of Judah: • Translation of the Bible into Greek (LXX) started → Foundation of many Hellenistic cities in Judah (Gaza, Asdod, Ashkelon, Joppa, Ptolemais, Samaria, Scythopolis, etc.) 200 Rule by the Selucids of Syria (200) Persecution of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163) Maccabean Revolt led by Mattathias (167-164) Judas Maccabeus (166-160) • Jonathan (160-143) • Simon (143-134) Hasmonean Period John Hyrcanus (134-104) (134-63 BCE) Aristobulus I (104-103) 100 • Alexander Janneus (103-76) Salome Alexander (76-67, widow of Janneus) Aristobulus II (67-63) Antipater (63-43, procurator) Hyrcanus II (47-40, ethnarch) • Rededication of the Temple (164) (Of which Hanukkah celebrates) • Judah recognized as an independent Jewish state (142 - 63); Simon recognized as high priest, governor, and commander. → Phase Ia at Qumran; only a small settlement • Antiochus VII Sidetes besieges Jerusalem, but fails • Emergence of Pharisees and Sadducees (?) • Judah expands, subdues Idumeans, takes Samaria; Alexander Janneus brings all Palestine under his control → Phase Ib at Qumran; expanded settlement that was abandoned after earthquake in 31 BCE • Syro-Palestine incorporated into the Roman province of Syria (63) ...
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