Disposal+Lecture+Final

Disposal+Lecture+Final - Chemical and Biological Weapons...

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Chemical and Biological Weapons Disposal Close to Home Pharm & Tox of Nerve Agents
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Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Calabar Bean Found in coastal W. Africa (Nigeria) Used as an ordeal poison in witchcraft trials. 1864-65: Active chemical agent isolated in Physostigmine (Eserine) 1877: Early use in opthalmology for treatment of glaucoma
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Somatic and Autonomic Nerves
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Cholinergic Nerve Terminal A t r o p i n e Nerve Ending Muscle or Gland
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Discovery of Organophosphates Friedrich-Wilhelms-University of Berlin, Germany <1mg Alkyl fluorophosphates produce untoward effects in humans. Establishes contact with Procter & Gamble (1936) and emigrates to USA (1939). P H 3 CH 2 CH 2 C F H 3 CH 2 CH 2 C O
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Dr. Gerhard Schrader mit seiner Frau Edeltraut und seiner ältesten Tochter Wiebke Gerhard Schrader, IG Farben
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Gerhard Schrader, IG Farben Searching for synthetic insecticides. Replace nicotine, rotenone Fumigants for moths, vegetable pests (leaf lice). Working with pharmacologist Hans Kukenthal, discovered Tabun and later, Sarin. Toxic actions on mammals reported to government. Tabun and Sarin Manufactured as chemical weapons. P N C C 2 H 5 O O N H 3 C H 3 C P C 3 H 7 O F H 3 C O Tabun (GA) 1936 Sarin (GB) 1938
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V Series Agents: VX N S O P O British Origin Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) Porton Down ~10 times more potent than Sarin Oily substance Persistent, stable
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VX In Popular Culture World War Z by Max Brooks Hypothetical Zombie Apocolypse Zombie Virus Ukranians use VX to uncover zombies
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Tokyo Subway Attacks Aum Shinrikyo Shoko Asahara
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Anticholinesterases: Toxic Actions Eyes: Redness, pupillary constriction (miosis), eye pain, dim vision, and blurred vision. Miosis may persist for long periods and may be unilateral. Nose: Rhinorrhea. Lungs Shortness of breath, chest tightness, respiratory distress, or gasping and even may present in apnea. Bronchoconstriction and excessive bronchial secretions Death may result from central respiratory depression and/or complete paralysis of the muscles of respiration. Skeletal muscle: Fasciculations localized, and then generalized. Eventually, muscles fatigue and flaccid paralysis ensues. Most signs and symptoms are related to the excessive activation and subsequent fatigue at the cholinergic receptor.
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Skin: sweating Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramping Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea with larger exposures. Heart: Either bradycardia or tachycardia depending on the predominance of adrenergic stimulation (resulting in tachycardia) or of the parasympathetic tone (causing bradycardia via vagal stimulation). Heart rate is an unreliable sign of nerve agent poisoning. Many disturbances in cardiac rhythm have been reported after both
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course PUBLIC POL 090 taught by Professor Rossi during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Disposal+Lecture+Final - Chemical and Biological Weapons...

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