Radiation+Lecture+Sp11

Radiation+Lecture+Sp11 - Radiation and Radioterrorism Prof...

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Michael P. Shakarjian, Radiation and Radioterrorism Prof. Joshua Gray, Ph.D.
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Atomic Structure Nucleus contains Atomic number, Z, of protons Neutron number, n, of neutrons Atomic mass number, A , is A=Z+n
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Michael P. Shakarjian, A=Z+n Atoms which have the same Z (proton) but differing A (atomic mass number) and n (neutron number) are called isotopes. Note – atomic mass number, A, is NOT the same thing as the chemical atomic weight, which is the average of all isotopes of an element weighted according to their relative abundance.
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Nuclear Stability Stable atom – Non-radioactive – Does not decay.
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Michael P. Shakarjian, A is for Atom http://video.google.com/videoplay? docid=-8242415374753728499#
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Radiation Energy propagated through space. The energy may be: Particles or waves Ionizing or non-ionizing
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Non-ionizing Radiation DOES NOT have sufficient energy to cause ionization in the substances it interacts with. Light Laser Heat. Radio. Microwaves.
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Ionizing Radiation Has sufficient energy that its interaction with matter will produce an ejected electron and a positively charged ion . Ionizing radiation may originate from the nucleus of an unstable atom (radionuclide) or from external stimulation of certain materials (x- rays).
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Energy and Injury Energy transfer to living things is the key to damage from interactions with ionizing radiation. All measurements and calculations used to evaluate the hazards from ionizing radiation serve to quantify the amount of energy that has been deposited in the region of interest.
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Energy and Injury The effects depend on: Type of radiation Amount of radiation Duration of exposure Area irradiated
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Michael P. Shakarjian, An alpha particle is essentially a helium nucleus. It consists of two protons and two neutrons, giving it a mass of 4 amu, and an electric charge of +2. 226 88 Ra 222 86 Rn + 4 2 He+ Q ( energy). Alpha
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Alpha Particle
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Alpha Alpha particles are the least penetrating of the four types of radiation. They can be absorbed or stopped by a few centimeters of air or a sheet of paper. Alpha particles will not penetrate dead layer of skin.
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Michael P. Shakarjian, Beta Beta particles have the same mass and charge as an electron. They are spontaneously emitted from the nucleus of an unstable atom. Beta particles originate in the nucleus, in contrast with ordinary electrons, which exist in the orbits around the nucleus. 32
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Radiation+Lecture+Sp11 - Radiation and Radioterrorism Prof...

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