Bioenergy

Bioenergy - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Bioenergy is energy derived from biomass. Biomass is all organic material being either: The direct product of photosynthesis (for example plant matter such as leaves, stems, etc.) The indirect product of photosynthesis (for example animal mass resulting from the consumption of plant material). The photosynthesis process uses solar energy to combine carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water (and various nutrients) from the soil to produce plant matter (biomass). The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted on combustion of biomass is taken up by new plant growth, resulting in zero net emissions of CO 2 . However, it should be remembered that there are some net C0 2 emissions associated with bioenergy when looked at on a life-cycle basis – emissions from fossil fuels used in the cultivation, harvesting and transport of the biomass. These are generally small compared to the CO 2 avoided by displacing fossil fuels with energy from biomass. Consequently, bioenergy is a renewable energy resource with the added benefit of being CO 2 neutral. Bioenergy
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Biomass Energy Biomass resources are potentially the world's largest and most sustainable energy source The annual bio-energy potential is about 2900 EJ, though only 270 EJ could be considered available on a sustainable basis and at competitive prices. The expected increase of biomass energy, particularly in its modern forms, could have a significant impact not only in the energy sector, but also in the drive to modernize agriculture, and on rural development. The share of biomass in the total final energy demand is between 7% and 27%. Source: http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/
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ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Biomass (other than wood) Agricultural and wood/forestry residues and herbaceous crops grown specifically for energy but excludes forest plantations grown specifically for energy. Dedicated energy plantations: 3 million ha of eucalyptus plantations used for charcoal making (Brazil); Plantation program for 13.5 million ha of fuel wood by 2010 in China; 16000 ha of willow plantations used for the generation of heat and power in Sweden; and 50000 ha of agricultural land has been converted to woody plantations, possibly rising to as much as 4 million ha (10 million acres) by 2020 in USA. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is potentially a major source of energy. This source of biomass will not be considered here due to the following reasons: the nature of MSW, which comprises many different organic and non-organic materials difficulties and high costs associated with sorting such material, which make it an unlikely candidate for renewable energy except for disposal purposes re-used MSW is mostly for recycling, e.g. paper MSW disposal would be done in landfills or incineration plants. Bio energy challenge:
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Bioenergy - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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