EML4930L5 - Solar Electricity - Thomas Surek

EML4930L5 - Solar Electricity - Thomas Surek - Solar...

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Solar Electricity: Solar Electricity: Progress and Challenges Progress and Challenges Thomas Surek Thomas Surek National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado, U.S.A. [email protected] National Center for Photovoltaics
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Advantages Advantages Modular (mW to many MW) No (or few) moving parts Noise and pollution free Reliable; low operating costs Abundant, indigenous resource (30,000 km 2 PV for 800 GW) Photovoltaics (PV) Photovoltaics (PV) Direct conversion of sunlight to electricity 02679658 Photovoltaics is Solar Electricity Photovoltaics is Solar Electricity
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Back contact and cover Cover (e.g.,glass) Antireflection coating Transparent adhesive Front contact n-type semiconductor p-type semiconductor Current Solar Cell Structure Solar Cell Structure Power out (W) x 100% Solar cell efficiency (%) = ——————————— Area (m 2 ) x 1000 W/m 2 10% efficiency = 100 W/m 2 or 10 W/ft 2
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Bandgap(eV) 40 30 20 10 Efficiency (%) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 AM1.5 Black-body limit AM0 CuInSe 2 Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 Cu 2 S InP Si GaAs CdTe a-Si:H CuInS 2 CuGaSe 2 Best confirmed efficiency under standard conditions (AM1.5,T=25°C) Ge CdS Si 56 7 8 9 12 2.5 Bandgap (eV) How to select the How to select the semiconductor semiconductor absorber material(s)? absorber material(s)? Four-junction device with bandgaps 1.8 eV / 1.4 eV / 1.0 eV / 0.7 eV Theoretical efficiency > 52% 1.0 0.5 2.0 1.5 eV
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026587152
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Efficiency (%) University of Maine Boeing Boeing Boeing Boeing ARCO NREL Boeing Euro-CIS 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 NREL/ Spectrolab NREL NREL Japan Energy Spire No. Carolina State University Multijunction Concentrators Three-junction (2-terminal, monolithic) Two-junction (2-terminal, monolithic) Crystalline Si Cells Single crystal Multicrystalline Thick Si Film Thin Film Technologies Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 CdTe Amorphous Si:H (stabilized) Nano-, micro-, poly- Si Multijunction polycrystalline Emerging PV Dye cells Organic cells (various technologies) Varian RCA Solarex UNSW UNSW ARCO UNSW UNSW UNSW Spire Stanford Westing- house UNSW Georgia Tech Georgia Tech Sharp AstroPower (small area) NREL Spectrolab NREL Matsushita Monosolar Kodak Kodak AMETEK Photon Energy University So. Florida NREL NREL Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 14x concentration NREL United Solar United Solar RCA RCA RCA RCA RCA RCA Boeing- Spectrolab Solarex 12 8 4 0 16 20 24 28 32 36 EPFL EPFL Siemens 2005 Groningen University Linz University Linz NREL 40 NREL (inverted, semi- mismatched) Sharp (large area) NREL Konarka University Linz FhG-ISE Kaneka (2μm on glass) Univ. Stuttgart (45μm thin-film transfer) NREL NREL NREL (CdTe/CIS) Best Research-Cell Efficiencies
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Efficiency (%) University of Maine Boeing Boeing Boeing Boeing ARCO NREL Boeing Euro-CIS 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 NREL/ Spectrolab NREL NREL Japan Energy Spire No. Carolina State University Multijunction Concentrators Three-junction (2-terminal, monolithic) Two-junction (2-terminal, monolithic) Crystalline Si Cells Single crystal Multicrystalline Thick Si Film Thin Film Technologies Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 CdTe Amorphous Si:H (stabilized) Nano-, micro-, poly- Si Multijunction polycrystalline Emerging PV Dye cells Organic cells (various technologies) Varian RCA
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EML4930L5 - Solar Electricity - Thomas Surek - Solar...

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