EML4930L6

EML4930L6 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Source: DLR Concentrating Solar Thermal Power
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Solar Thermal Conversion Major Functions: • Solar Radiation collection and concentration • Conversion to heat • Storage of energy • Generation of electricity • Use of waste heat in refrigeration and air-conditioning • Use of waste heat in water purification
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Collection The temperature to which a surface is heated by a certain flux of incident solar energy is determined by the balance of incident radiation and loss by conduction, convection and radiation. The use of selective surfaces that absorb visible sunlight but do not lose energy by infrared radiation will achieve high temperatures. The temperature obtained can be increased by boosting the flux of incident sunlight by use of concentrating mirrors or lenses. A fairly low concentration ratio, obtainable with simple optics, can be combined with a selective surface to efficiently produce temperatures high enough for electrical power generation. Three basic collection geometries of sunlight for solar thermal conversion: non-concentrating, concentrating to a line, and concentrating to a point.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Collection Non concentrating collectors: Industrial process heat at moderate temperatures (About 18% of the fuel consumption in the United States is for generation of industrial process heat at moderate temperatures (process steam) and another 11.5% is used for high-temperature process heat).Low temperature heat for domestic water heating. Concentration to a line: concentration ratios up to 20 with selective surfaces to achieve high enough temperatures for electrical generation Point focusing: concentration ratios up to 1000, with out the need for use of selective surfaces. (Thermochemical conversion - splitting of water to produce hydrogen)
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Focusing Systems
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Area concentration ratio (geometric): Concentration Ratio C = A a A r Sun Optical concentration ratio: I r is the averaged irradiance a is the insolation incident on the collector aperture C O = 1 A r I r dA r I a Aperture Receiver Sun @ T s
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter “That the human race must finally utilize direct sun power or revert to barbarism because eventually all coal and oil will be used up. I would recommend all far-sighted engineers and inventors to work in this direction to their own profit, and the eternal welfare of the human race” Frank Shuman - 1914 Between 1880 and 1910, there were 48 articles on solar energy as a world energy source in the pages of Scientific American magazine. In 1780, 95% of total power used in commercial applications was from
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course ESC 2005 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at FSU.

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EML4930L6 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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