EML4930L10

EML4930L10 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Energy Storage Storage modes are determined by the particular end-use applications Anjane Krothapalli, September 20, 2006 http://www.sesec.fsu.edu
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Main Parameters Energy density : The amount of energy that can be stored. Recovery rate : The efficiency at which the energy can be recovered. Hydrogen has for example has one of the highest storage densities (kWh/kg) of 38 as compared to that of lead acid batteries, 0.04. The efficiency of work exchange processes: η cycle W re cov ered W in = η in out
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Electrochemical systems batteries and flow cells Mechanical systems fly-wheels and compressed air energy storage (CAES ) Electrical systems super-capacitors and super-conducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) Chemical systems hydrogen cycle (electrolysis -> storage -> power conversion) Thermal systems sensible heat (storage heaters) and phase change Generic Storage Systems
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Ragone Plot Source: Tester et. al. Sustainable energy, MIT Press
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Energy Density 2/m 3 Compressed Air 38 Hydrogen 0.9 Flywheel, Fused Silica 0.2 Flywheel, Carbon Fiber 0.05 Flywheel, Steel 0.3/m 3 Hydrostorage 0.04 Lead Acid Batteries 14 Gasoline kWh/kg Method
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Battery Storage Designed for load leveling Large number of batteries charged during low demand periods One acre could store 400 MWh of energy, deliver 40 MW for 10 hours Batteries require environmentally damaging chemicals Typical installation: Southern California Edison 8000 lead acid battery modules to deliver up to 10 MW of power for four hours of continuous discahrge
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter 1. Life time (maximum number of charge and discharge cycles) 2. Overall cycle efficiency 3. Depth of discharge per cycle (deep cycle - less instant energy but longer term energy delivery: e.g.: Golf cart battery) 4. Cost of unit of power or energy stored Performance Factors
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Rechargeable Battery Characteristics http://www.afrlhorizons.com/Briefs/Feb04/PR0306.html >2,000 >3.6 300 150 Lithium >10,000 1.2 0.06 55 Nickel hydrogen >1000 1.2 0.08 35 Nickel Cadmium 400 2 0.08 35 Lead acid Cycle Life Voltage Wh/m 3 Wh/kg Properties
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter 400 Wh/kg Goal
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Typical compact automobile power requirement: 50 KW Typical driving distance: 500 km Average speed: 100 km/hr Required stored energy: 250 kWh Battery capacity: 400 Wh/kg Batteries weight: 625 kg; Cost: $50,000 Battery Storage Requirement Individual Americans use about 1.5 kWh of electricity every hour Typical storage requirement: 15 kWh Battery capacity: 400 Wh/kg Batteries weight: 37.5 kg; Cost: $3000
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EML4930L10 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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