EML4930L14

EML4930L14 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Biomass for Power Generation References: Donald L. Klass, Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels and Chemicals, Academic Press, 1998. Peter Quaak, Harrie Knoef and Hubert Stassen, Energy from Biomass: A review of combustion and gasification technologies, World Bank Technical Paper #422, The World Bank, 1998.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Biomass Energy Biomass resources are potentially the world's largest and most sustainable energy source The annual bio-energy potential is about 2900 EJ, though only 270 EJ could be considered available on a sustainable basis and at competitive prices. The expected increase of biomass energy, particularly in its modern forms, could have a significant impact not only in the energy sector, but also in the drive to modernize agriculture, and on rural development. The share of biomass in the total final energy demand is between 7% and 27%. Source: http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Biomass Definitions Organic material mainly composed of carbohydrate and lignin compounds, the building blocks of which are the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates consist of sugars, starches, and cellulose , which contain CHO and function primarily as energy storage, energy transport and plant structure. Cellulose (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n is a long-chain polymer polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta- glucose. It forms the primary structural component of plants and is not digestible by humans. Cellulose is a common material in plant cell walls and was first noted as such in 1838. In combination with lignin and any hemicellulose (C 5 H 8 O 4 ) n , it is found in all plant material. Lignin is a polymer in the secondary cell wall of woody plant cells that helps to strengthen and stiffen the wall. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Biomass (other than wood) Agricultural and wood/forestry residues and herbaceous crops grown specifically for energy but excludes forest plantations grown specifically for energy. Dedicated energy plantations: 3 million ha of eucalyptus plantations used for charcoal making (Brazil); Plantation program for 13.5 million ha of fuel wood by 2010 in China; 16000 ha of willow plantations used for the generation of heat and power in Sweden; and 50000 ha of agricultural land has been converted to woody plantations, possibly rising to as much as 4 million ha (10 million acres) by 2020 in USA. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is potentially a major source of energy. This source of biomass will not be considered here due to the following reasons: the nature of MSW, which comprises many different organic and non-organic materials difficulties and high costs associated with sorting such material, which make it an unlikely candidate for renewable energy except for disposal purposes re-used MSW is mostly for recycling, e.g. paper MSW disposal would be done in landfills or incineration plants.
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EML4930L14 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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