thesis_c_newton

Thesis_c_newton - THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY FAMU-FSU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY SYSTEM By C CHRISTOPHER NEWTON A

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THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY FAMU-FSU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY SYSTEM By C. CHRISTOPHER NEWTON A Thesis submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2007
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ii The members of the Committee approve the Thesis of C. Christopher Newton defended on December 14, 2006 . Anjaneyulu Krothapalli Professor Directing Thesis Patrick Hollis Outside Committee Member Brenton Greska Committee Member The Office of Graduate Studies has verified and approved the above named committee members.
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iii The dedication page is optional. You do not have to provide a dedication for your manuscript.
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iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Acknowledgements page is also optional. You may use this section to express acknowledgement of those who have helped you with this manuscript and your academic career.
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v TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables ................................................................................................ Page viii List of Figures ................................................................................................ Page ix Abstract ...................................................................................................... Page xiv 1. Background ................................................................................................ Page 1 1.1 Introduction. .......................................................................................... Page 1 1.2 Historical Perspective of Solar Thermal Power and Process Heat. ...... Page 2 1.2.1 Known Parabolic Dish Systems. ......................................... Page 3 1.3 Solar Thermal Conversion. ................................................................... Page 5 1.4 Solar Geometry (Fundamentals of Solar Radiation). ............................ Page 6 1.4.1 Sun-Earth Geometric Relationship . .................................... Page 6 1.4.2 Angle of Declination. .......................................................... Page 7 1.4.3 Solar Time and Angles. ....................................................... Page 10 1.5 Solar Radiation . .................................................................................... Page 13 1.5.1 Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation . ......................................... Page 13 1.5.2 Terrestrial Solar Radiation. ................................................. Page 14 1.6 Radiative Properties. ............................................................................. Page 17 1.7 Solar Collector/Concentrator. ............................................................... Page 18 1.7.1 Acceptance Angle. .............................................................. Page 21 1.7.2 Thermodynamic Limits of Concentration. .......................... Page 22 1.8 The Receiver/Absorber. ........................................................................ Page 23 1.8.1 Cavity Receiver. .................................................................. Page 24 1.8.2 External Receiver. ............................................................... Page 25 1.9 Heat Storage. ......................................................................................... Page 25 1.9.1 Sensible Heat Storage . ........................................................ Page 25 1.9.2 Latent Heat Storage . ........................................................... Page 26 1.10 Rankine Cycle. .................................................................................... Page 26 1.10.1 Working Fluid. .................................................................. Page 29 1.10.2 Deviation of Actual Cycle from Ideal. .............................. Page 29 1.11 Steam Turbine. .................................................................................... Page 30 1.11.1 Impulse Turbine. ............................................................... Page 31 1.11.2 Reaction Turbine. .............................................................. Page 31 1.11.3 Turbine Efficiency . ........................................................... Page 32 1.12 Overview. ............................................................................................ Page 33 2. Experimental Apparatus and Procedures. ....................................................... Page 34 2.1 Introduction. .......................................................................................... Page 34 2.2 Solar Collector . ..................................................................................... Page 34 2.3 The Receiver. ........................................................................................ Page 36 2.4 Steam Turbine. ...................................................................................... Page 39
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vi 2.5 Gear-Train. ............................................................................................ Page 41 2.6 Working Fluid of Solar Thermal System. ............................................. Page 43 2.7 Feed-Water Pump . ................................................................................ Page 44 2.8 Tracking . .............................................................................................. Page 45 2.9 Data Acquisition . .................................................................................. Page 49 2.9.1 Instrumentation . .................................................................. Page 50 2.10 Power Supply. ..................................................................................... Page 50 2.11 Generator/Alternator. .......................................................................... Page 53 3. Analysis/Results and Discussion . ................................................................... Page 55 3.1 Introduction. .......................................................................................... Page 55 3.2 Solar Calculations. ................................................................................ Page 55 3.3 Analysis of the Dish. ............................................................................. Page 57 3.3.1 Efficiency of Collector. ....................................................... Page 61 3.4 Receiver . .............................................................................................. Page 66 3.4.1 Boiler Efficiency. ................................................................ Page 76 3.5 Turbine Efficiency . ............................................................................... Page 77 3.6 Turbine/Gear-Train Analysis. ............................................................... Page 78 3.7 Analysis of the Rankine Cycle. ............................................................. Page 79 3.8 Generator and Energy Conversion Efficiency. ..................................... Page 81 4. Conclusions …. ............................................................................................... Page 83 4.1 Introduction. .......................................................................................... Page 83 4.2 Solar Calculations. ................................................................................ Page 83 4.3 Trackers . .............................................................................................. Page 83 4.4 Solar Concentrator . ............................................................................... Page 84 4.5 Receiver/Boiler . .................................................................................... Page 84 4.6 Steam Turbine. ...................................................................................... Page 85 4.7 Generator . ............................................................................................. Page 85 4.8 Cycle Conclusions . .............................................................................. Page 85 4.9 Future Work . ........................................................................................ Page 86 APPENDICES ................................................................................................ Page 88 A Rabl’s Theorem. .................................................................................... Page 88 B Solar Angle and Insolation Calculations .
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Thesis_c_newton - THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY FAMU-FSU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY SYSTEM By C CHRISTOPHER NEWTON A

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