EML4450L3

EML4450L3 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Climate Change & Global Warming Sources: 1. Global Warming by L.D. Danny Harvey , Prentice Hall, 2000. 2. Atmospheric Pollution by Mark Z. Jacobson , Cambridge University Press, 2002. 3. Climate Change, 2001. 4. Elementary Climate Physics by F.W. Taylor, Oxford University Press, 2005. Reading Assignment: Chapter 4 in the text book
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Components of the climate system: The atmosphere •O c e a n s Biosphere (global ecological system) Cryosphere (ice & snow) Lithosphere (Earth’s crust) The Climate System External forcing: •S u n Volcanic eruptions Originating from inside the earth but they are external in a system sense - they influence but are not influenced by the climate system. They influence climate system through the injection of sulphur gases into the stratosphere which are transformed chemically into sulphate aerosols that have cooling effect on climate and through the emissions of CO 2
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Global Climate System Components
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter The Climate System: Energy and Mass Flows Energy and matter links the different components of the climate system. Energy flows : Solar and infrared radiation Sensible heat Latent heat (related to the evaporation and condensation of water vapor or freezing and melting of ice) Transfer of momentum between the ocean and atmosphere Mass flows : Water, carbon, sulphur and nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrate (NO 3 - ) The behavior of the climate system depends on the nature of the energy flow and mass flows change as the system changes and vice versa. The time scales with which the system responds to changes in the mass and energy flows are important.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Layers of the Atmosphere All weather takes place Responsible for absorbing ultraviolet radiation from Sun Most energetic photons from the Sun are absorbed
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Global stratospheric ozone (O 3 ) Reduction (Reference: D.W. Fahey, http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/index.html) Global warming Major Global Environmental issues
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Ozone is a gas that is naturally present in our atmosphere at a concentration of 12,000 ozone molecules for every billion air molecules. About 90% of all ozone molecules in the atmosphere reside in the stratosphere and the rest reside in troposphere. While ozone molecules near the earth’s surface are quite harmful to life, they however, shield the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Hence, absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UV portion of the solar spectrum) by ozone is critical for sustainable life on earth.
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EML4450L3 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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