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EML4450L8

EML4450L8 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Thermodynamics Fundamentals for Energy Conversion Systems Renewable Energy Applications The study of the laws that govern the conversion of energy from one form to the other

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Energy Conversion Concerned with the transformation of energy from sources such as fossil fuel and radiation from Sun into conveniently used forms such as electrical energy, propulsive energy, heating and cooling. Forms of energy: Kinetic, potential, thermal, chemical, electromagnetic etc. Thermodynamics is the study which seeks to establish quantitative relationships among macroscopic variables (like pressure, temperature, molecular concentrations etc.) which describe an arbitrary physical system (system being very large compared with atomic dimensions) in an equilibrium state. Fuel Air Products of combustion Waste heat to cooling tower ~ Electrical energy (Work) Objective: Convert the availability of the fuel into work in the most efficient manner, taking into consideration cost, size, safety and environmental concerns. Power plant
S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Energy Sources and Conversion Processes

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Energy Conversion Technologies
S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Laws of Thermodynamics The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law is the basis of temperature measurement . First Law of Thermodynamics: The change in internal energy of a closed system is equals to the heat added to the system (or absorbed from the environment) minus the work done by the system (or on the environment). This law is a consequence of conservation of energy. While attempting to transform heat into work with full efficacy, we quickly learned that always some heat would escape into the surrounding environment as wasted energy (recall that energy can not be destroyed). This wasted energy can never be fully converted into anything useful. Second Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible to construct an engine which, operating in a cycle, will produce no other effect than the extraction of heat from a single heat reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work. It imposes a limitation on energy transformations other than that imposed by the first law.

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter The second law states that heat flows naturally from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature, but that it will not flow naturally the other way. Heat can be made to flow from a colder region to a hotter region, which is exactly what happens in an air conditioner, but heat only does this when it is forced. On the other hand, heat flows from hot to cold spontaneously.
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