EML4450L22

EML4450L22 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Reference: Renewable Energy by Godfrey Boyle, Oxford University Press, 2004. Ocean Energy
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Ocean Energy Oceans cover most of the (70%) of the earth’s surface and they generate thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from the tides and waves. The solar energy that is stored in the upper layers of the tropical ocean, if harnessed can provide electricity in large enough quantities to make it a viable energy source. World ocean temperature difference at a depth of 1000 m This energy source is available throughout the equatorial zone around the world or about 20 degrees north and south of the equator - where most of the world's population lives.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Tides The ocean tides are caused by the gravitational forces from the moon and the sun and the centrifugal forces on the rotating earth. These forces tend to raise the sea level both on the side of the earth facing the moon and on the opposite side. The result is a cyclic variation between flood (high) and ebb (low) tides with a period of 12 hours and 25 minutes or half a lunar day. Additionally, there are other cyclic variations caused by by the combined effect of the moon and the sun. The most important ones are the 14 days spring tide period between high flood tides and the half year period between extreme annual spring tides. Low flood tides follow similar cycles. The ocean bottom topography has pronounced effect on the local tides. The tides are accurately predictable.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Tidal Power Potential The world potential for tidal power exceeds 450 TWh In the open ocean, the maximum amplitude of the tides is about one meter. Tidal amplitudes are increased substantially towards the coast, particularly in estuaries. This is mainly caused by shelving of the sea bed and funneling of the water by estuaries. In some cases the tidal range can be further amplified by reflection of the tidal wave by the coastline or resonance. This is a special effect that occurs in long, trumpet-shaped estuaries, when the length of the estuary is close to one quarter of the tidal wave length. These effects combine to give a mean spring tidal range of over 11 m in the Severn Estuary (UK). Tidal energy is highly predictable in both amount and timing. The available energy is approximately proportional to the square of the tidal range. Extraction of energy from the tides is considered to be practical only at those sites where the energy is concentrated in the form of large tides and the geography provides suitable sites for tidal plant construction. Such sites are not commonplace but a considerable number have been identified in the UK, France, eastern Canada, the Pacific coast of Russia, Korea, China, Mexico and Chile. Other sites have been identified along the Patagonian coast of Argentina, Western Australia and western India.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Tidal Power
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course EML 4450 taught by Professor Greska during the Fall '06 term at FSU.

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EML4450L22 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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