EML4450L26

EML4450L26 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Source: Marianne Salomon @ KTH Hydropower See the notes in Compedu http://www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/index.html
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Global Renewable Energy Source: IEA
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Worldwide Hydropower Source : IEA
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Hydropower - History For many centuries, hydropower had been used to produced mechanical power to perform a range of activities, including grain milling, textile processing and other light industrial operations. A great part of the industrial revolution in the 18th century was “fueled” by access to hydropower
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Hydropower Basics P (W) = ρ g H Q η t ρ = water density = 1000 kg/m 3 g = gravitational const. = 9,81 m/s 2 H = head (m) Q = water flow (m 3 /s) η t = turbine efficiency
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Hydropower Advantages A big advantage of hydroelectric power is the ability to quickly and readily vary the amount of power generated, depending on the load presented at that moment. It utilizes a renewable energy source as “fuel” (water) Generation process is environmentally clean High reliability
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Hydropower Disadvantages It requires large initial investments Long transmission lines Social and environmental impacts for large-scale schemes
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Hydropower Plant
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Dams
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Hydropower Plant Dam Penstock Spillway Turbine Powerhouse Generator Transformer Transmission lines
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Dams Today there are over 45,000 dams (h>15 m, or V > 3 x 10 6 m 3 ) in > 150 nations. About one fifth of the world's agricultural land is irrigated, and irrigated agriculture accounts for about 40% of the world's agricultural production. One third of the countries in water-stressed regions of the world are expected to face severe water shortages this century. By 2025 there will be approximately 6.5 times as many people - a total of 3.5 billion - living in water-stressed countries. Half the world's large dams were built exclusively or primarily for irrigation, and an estimated 30 to 40% of the 271 million hectares of irrigated lands worldwide rely on dams. Dams are estimated to contribute to 12-16% of world food production. Hydropower currently provides 16% of the world's total electricity supply, and is used in over 150 countries with 24 of these countries depending on it for 90% of their supply.
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S ustainable E nergy S cience and E ngineering C enter Dam Types Gravity Dams Arch Dams Buttress Dams Embankment Dams Earthfill dams Rockfill dams
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EML4450L26 - Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

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