12-The Polio Virus _v.2_

12-The Polio Virus _v.2_ - The Polio Virus The Introduction...

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Unformatted text preview: The Polio Virus The Introduction to Appalachian Studies HUM 1704 Dr. Stevan R. Jackson What is the Polio Virus? Short for poliomyelitis Short Causes damage to the nervous system Causes resulting in paralysis Caused by three viruses Caused What is the Polio Virus? British physician Michael Underwood provided the first clinical description of polio, referring to it as “debility of the lower extremities” in 1789. “debility In 1840, German physician Jakob von Heine In described the clinical features of the disease and noted the symptoms suggested involvement with spinal cord. involvement What is the Polio Virus? The first polio epidemic in the US occurs in Vermont in 1894, consisting of 132 cases, including some adults. including What is the Polio Virus? Polio becomes a reportable disease in 1908 as Austrian physicians Karl Landsteiner and E. Popper identify the polio virus. E. A llarge outbreak of polio in the US in 1916 arge with over 9000 cases in New York City alone. with What is the Polio Virus? In 1921 Franklin Delano Roosevelt contracts polio and is left with severe paralysis. polio Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw developed the Philip iron lung in 1928. iron What is the Polio Virus? Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president in 1932 and is the first and only president to use a wheelchair. use World War II ends in 1945 and polio World epidemics occur almost immediately with more the 20,000 cases yearly between 1945 and 1949 and Pictures of Virus Pictures Three Viruses The three classifications of the Polio virus are Types 1, 2, and 3 Types The viruses are RNA viruses This means that the viruses affect the cell’’s s RNA and use it to multiple RNA Causes of Infection Infection is caused by contact with infected feces. feces. Children are more susceptible to infection. Infection mostly occurs through the mouth. Causes of Infection Causes Polio is caused mainly by unsanitary conditions. conditions. Effects on the Body Temporary paralysis Temporary Deformation of limbs Deformation Permanent paralysis Permanent If left untreated can cause death Effects on the Body Effects Polio Vaccination Found in April 1955 by Dr. Jonas Salk Found Used a mild dose of the virus to help the body Used naturally build up immunities Administered using a needle Administered In 1964 the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) was In developed by Albert Sabin developed Polio Vaccination Polio Treating the Infected Patients infected with the polio virus were placed in a machine called the Iron Lung. placed The machine would push and pull the muscles The of the chest acting as a ventilator. of Epidemic Around the turn of the 19th century the polio Around virus became a problem in America. virus Unsanitary conditions and improper sewage Unsanitary systems were to blame. systems Cases in cities sky rocketed in the summer Cases months. months. Effects on Appalachia Small town communities such as Wytheville, Virginia were blindsided with a polio epidemic in 1950. in Due to their isolation it was hard for patients to Due be treated. be Effects on Appalachia The population of children in Wytheville, Virginia greatly decreased in the summer of 1950 due to the polio virus 1950 Polio in Today’s World Although polio has been eradicated in most countries it still exists. countries Developing countries like Nigeria, India, Developing Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Pakistan, This is due to the lack of vaccine available in those countries. those Polio in Today’s World Even though the outbreak in Wytheville, VA as depicted in “Summer Without Children” was one of the worst in Appalachia, polio in the region today is virtually non-existent compared to the developing countries of the world. to ...
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