Unformatted text preview: The Polio Virus
Introduction to Appalachian Studies
Dr. Stevan R. Jackson What is the Polio Virus? Short for poliomyelitis
Causes damage to the nervous system
resulting in paralysis
Caused by three viruses
Caused What is the Polio Virus? British physician Michael Underwood provided
the first clinical description of polio, referring to
it as “debility of the lower extremities” in 1789.
In 1840, German physician Jakob von Heine
described the clinical features of the disease
and noted the symptoms suggested
involvement with spinal cord.
involvement What is the Polio Virus? The first polio epidemic in the US occurs in
Vermont in 1894, consisting of 132 cases,
including some adults.
including What is the Polio Virus? Polio becomes a reportable disease in 1908
as Austrian physicians Karl Landsteiner and
E. Popper identify the polio virus.
A llarge outbreak of polio in the US in 1916
with over 9000 cases in New York City alone.
with What is the Polio Virus? In 1921 Franklin Delano Roosevelt contracts
polio and is left with severe paralysis.
Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw developed the
iron lung in 1928.
iron What is the Polio Virus? Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president
in 1932 and is the first and only president to
use a wheelchair.
World War II ends in 1945 and polio
epidemics occur almost immediately with
more the 20,000 cases yearly between 1945
and Pictures of Virus
Pictures Three Viruses
The three classifications of the Polio virus are
Types 1, 2, and 3
The viruses are RNA viruses
This means that the viruses affect the cell’’s
RNA and use it to multiple
RNA Causes of Infection
Infection is caused by contact with infected
Children are more susceptible to infection.
Infection mostly occurs through the mouth. Causes of Infection
Polio is caused mainly by unsanitary
conditions. Effects on the Body
Deformation of limbs
If left untreated can cause death Effects on the Body
Effects Polio Vaccination
Found in April 1955 by Dr. Jonas Salk
Used a mild dose of the virus to help the body
naturally build up immunities
Administered using a needle
In 1964 the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) was
developed by Albert Sabin
developed Polio Vaccination
Polio Treating the Infected
Patients infected with the polio virus were
placed in a machine called the Iron Lung.
The machine would push and pull the muscles
of the chest acting as a ventilator.
Around the turn of the 19th century the polio
virus became a problem in America.
Unsanitary conditions and improper sewage
systems were to blame.
Cases in cities sky rocketed in the summer
months. Effects on Appalachia
Small town communities such as Wytheville,
Virginia were blindsided with a polio epidemic
Due to their isolation it was hard for patients to
be Effects on Appalachia
The population of children in Wytheville,
Virginia greatly decreased in the summer of
1950 due to the polio virus
1950 Polio in Today’s World
Although polio has been eradicated in most
countries it still exists.
Developing countries like Nigeria, India,
Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
This is due to the lack of vaccine available in
those Polio in Today’s World
Even though the outbreak in Wytheville, VA as
depicted in “Summer Without Children” was
one of the worst in Appalachia, polio in the
region today is virtually non-existent compared
to the developing countries of the world.
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course HUM 1704 taught by Professor Srjackson during the Fall '11 term at Virginia Tech.
- Fall '11