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2011 - Norms I Two Common Problems A In a well intentioned...

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3/8/2011 Norms I) Two Common Problems A) In a well intentioned effort to activate an injunctive norm to elicit desired behavior, one inadvertently activates a descriptive counter-norm B) We sometimes are mistaken about what the norms are- pluralistic ignorance C) Kitty Genovese C.1) Bystander (non)intervention - why so common? (C.1.a) Many requirements must be met before intervention C.1.a.i Notice event (distractive, inattentive, late) C.1.a.iiInterpret as emergency (pluralistic ignorance) In ambiguous situations, we try to see what others are doing People often decide that there is no need for alarm If you are reluctant to express alarm, you don’t show alarm and others who see you won’t think there’s an emergency C.1.a.iii Take responsibility (diffusion with numbers) The more people there are who are witness, the more this occurs C.1.a.iv Figure out how to help (sufficient competence) C.1.a.vDecide to help (cost to self?) (C.1.b) Pluralistic ignorance in Bystander (non)intervention C.1.b.i The smoke study % who notify the experimenter subject alone- 75% subject and 2 confederates- 10% 3 subjects 11% C.1.b.iiOn college campuses Pressure to drink Princeton study- “you don’t have to drink as much as you think you do”- C.1.b.iii Miller and Nelson (2002) Pluralistic ignorance usually arises when behavior is guided by avoidance motivation rather than approach motivation People see others behavior as reflecting approach when their own avoidance oriented? C.1.b.iv Bush vs. Gore election- not pro-x, but anti-y Before 2000 Bush-Gore election, respondents asked (1) who they will vote for; (2) whether their vote is more of a reflection of enthusiasm for their chosen candidate or anti-enthusiasm for the candidate they don’t want; and (3) “how does the appeal Bush/Gore has for you compare to the appeal he has for other Princeton students who intend to vote for him? – more appeal to me, same appeal to me, less appeal to me.
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