Groundwater

Groundwater - Groundwater withdrawal can also lead to...

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Groundwater Groundwater is one of the components of the hydrologic cycle, the cyclical movement of water at or beneath Earth’s surface
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Groundwater is all of the water beneath Earth’s surface. There are two zones where groundwater can be found: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. The groundwater table separates the two
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With the exception of open cavities all groundwater is found in pores. Porosity is a measure of the amount of pore space in a rock unit, and depends on the: Size of grains Shape of grains How the grains are packed High Porosity Low Porosity
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Permeability is the ability of water to move through a rock. Usually permeability increases as porosity increases, but not always. Rocks that do not transmit water are said to be impermeable
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An aquifer is any rock unit that stores and transmits enough water to supply a well. Excessive pumping of a well could lead to a cone of depression Should try to balance the rate of withdrawal with the rate of recharge.
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Unformatted text preview: Groundwater withdrawal can also lead to subsidence of the land surface There are two types of aquifers 1) Unconfined aquifer Is not overlain by an aquiclude (a low permeable confining layer). The water level in wells that pierce unconfined aquifers is at the water table 2) Confined aquifer Is overlain by an aquiclude. This causes the water in the aquifer to be under pressure. Water level in wells that pierce confined aquifers will rise to the potentiometric surface, an artesian well may result Karst topography forms from the gradual dissolution of rock, and is generally found in limestone dominated terrains. Dissolution of rock occurs because: CO 2 dissolves in rainwater forming carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which dissolves calcite (CaCO 3 ) Common features include sinkholes, springs, caves, and disappearing streams CaCO 3 + H 2 CO 3 = Ca +2 + 2HCO 3-1 A large sinkhole in Winter Park, Florida...
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Groundwater - Groundwater withdrawal can also lead to...

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