Minerals

Minerals - Planes of easy breaking, which are based on...

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Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline substance with a specific chemical composition Elements Minerals Rocks Over 4,000 different minerals
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Minerals form by the process of crystallization. Microscopic crystals are the first to form and then may grow larger, maintaining their crystal faces if allowed to Crystallization of minerals may occur by lowering the temperature of a liquid, precipitation, or by reheating causing rearrangement of atoms/ions
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Two factors control the type of mineral that forms: 1) Chemical composition 2) Pressure-Temperature Polymorphs are minerals that have the same chemical composition, but different crystal structure Graphite Diamond Density 2.1 g/cm 3 3.5 g/cm 3 Hardness Soft Very Hard Elec. Prop. Conductor Insulator Visual Prop. Opaque Transparent Crystal Struc. Hexagonal Cubic
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Physical properties of minerals are used for identification. 1) Cleavage
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Unformatted text preview: Planes of easy breaking, which are based on weaknesses in the atomic structure. Minerals can have 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 planes of cleavage 2) Hardness Ability of the mineral to resist scratching. Tested using known minerals and common items 3) Luster The way a mineral reflects light. Can be either metallic or nonmetallic Metallic Nonmetallic Examples: Aluminum foil Plastic Gold ring Glass Steel nail Ceramics 4) Streak Color of the mineral powder. Tested using streak plates 5) Reaction to HCl Used to distinguish calcite from other minerals 6) Taste The mineral halite exhibits a characteristic salty taste 7) Color Unreliable for some minerals (quartz), diagnostic for others (olivine) 8) Specific Gravity A unitless number representing an approximate density. Metallic minerals usually have a higher specific gravity than nonmetallic minerals...
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course GLY 1000 taught by Professor Parker during the Spring '11 term at FSU.

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Minerals - Planes of easy breaking, which are based on...

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