PT5-Academy

PT5-Academy - Toba (15,000 BC) massive death/famine pop...

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Plate Tectonics and the Atmosphere
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CO 2 => greenhouse gas SO 2 +H 2 O => H 2 SO 4 (acid rain, clouds) Ash into stratosphere
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History of Atmospheric CO 2 through geological time (past 550 million years: from Berner, Science, 1997). The parameter RCO 2 is defined as the ratio of the mass of CO2 in the atmosphere at some time in the past to that at present.
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Sulfur
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Volcanoes 200 million mt CO 2 /yr (humans 27 billion mt) 10.4 million mt SO 2 /yr (humans 79 million mt)
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Subduction of Tethys Limestones released CO2
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CaSiO 4 + H 2 O + CO 2 => SiO 2 + CaCO 3 Increased weathering in mountains removes CO2
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Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments) results in increased oxygen and decreased CO 2
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Methane Clathrates 500-2500 Gt of carbon All other fossil fuels = 5000 Gt
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Plate Tectonics and the Oceans
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Black Smokers
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Today Mg = 4 x Ca makes calcite difficult to form get aragonite instead
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CaCO 3 + Mg => CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 + Ca Calcite Dolomite
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Mg in seawater alters ocean floor rocks at spreading centers
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Plate Tectonics and Climate
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Weather/climate driven by solar energy Sulfur aerosols cause temperature drop
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Unformatted text preview: Toba (15,000 BC) massive death/famine pop bottleneck Laki (1783) Eastern US recorded record low Tambora (1815) snowfall and frost June, July, August Krakatau (1883) cooler temps and colorful sunsets Pinatubo (1991) averge 1C lower for 2 years Edvard Munch Continental positions affect ocean currents Australia separates from Antarctica Thermohaline circulation keeps oceans well mixed The Himalayas and the Pleistocene Ice Age Plate Tectonics and Sea Level Hypsometric Curve EUSTATIC SEALEVEL CONTROLS Fast (1000s yrs) Slow (1,000,000s yrs) Plate Tectonics and Life Origin of Life Life in calcite vs aragonite seas Calcite Organisms Aragonite Organisms Correlation between Flood Basalts (major mantle plume events) and mass extinctions Summary: Plate tectonics does more than simply drive geologic processes. It also controls the composition of the atmosphere and oceans, affects climate, and influences the development of life....
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PT5-Academy - Toba (15,000 BC) massive death/famine pop...

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