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Structural Geology

Structural Geology - Structural Geology Structural...

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Unformatted text preview: Structural Geology Structural Structural geology is the study of rocks Structural deformed by stress and strain deformed This involves trying to understand stress This and strain forces to decipher its preand deformed state When working in the field, Strike and Dip When Strike Dip measurements are used to determine the orientation of rock units and other features orientation 1) Strike – The compass direction of a line at the intersection of a geologic plane and a horizontal plane (water line) plane 2) Dip – The angle between the inclined plane and horizontal, perpendicular to strike horizontal, Folds, faults, and unconformities are the Folds, three main features that structural geologists examine examine 1) Folds occur when originally horizontal rock units deform under compressive forces. Common types of folds are anticlines and anticlines synclines. synclines • For every fold there is a fold axis, which fold which is in the axial plane axial • Some folds may plunge, these are called plunging folds plunging folds Plunging anticlines and synclines have complex surface expressions 2) Faults are breaks in rock units were movement 2) has occurred. There are three major types of faults faults 1) Normal – Hanging wall (top surface) moves down relative to the footwall (bottom surface), caused by tension (extension) 2) Reverse – Hanging wall moves up relative to the 2) footwall, caused by compression (shortening) 3) Strike-Slip – Movement along the fault is 3) horizontal, parallel to the strike of the fault plane. If, standing on one side of the fault, the block on the other side is displaced to the right, the fault is termed right-lateral. If the block on the other side is displaced to the left, the fault is termed left lateral lateral Is this fault right-lateral or left-lateral? Left-lateral 3) Unconformities are surfaces where erosion has 3) occurred and represent gaps in the geologic record. There are three types of unconformities record. Angular Unconformity – An unconformity in which the upper and lower layers are not parallel the Disconformity – An unconformity in which the upper and lower layers are horizontal and Nonconformity – An unconformity in which the upper layers overlie metamorphic or igneous rocks layers ...
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