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My Study Guide3

My Study Guide3 - Chapter 7 Monosaccharide a carbohydrate...

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Chapter 7 Monosaccharide – a carbohydrate that has a single carbonyl group and two or more hydroxyl groups Aldose – a carbohydrate that contains an aldehyde functional group Glyceraldehyde – c3h6o3, intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism and yields glycerol on reduction. Chiral Center – molecule that has four different groups attached Diasterisomers – molecules that are stereoisomers but not enantiomers (mirror image) Ketohexose – any sugar that has six carbon atoms and a ketone group Furanose – sugar having a cyclic structure resembling that of a furan Cyclic hemiacetal Anomeric Center – site where ring opens that becomes carbonyl group Reducing sugar – carbohydrates that contain a free aldehyde group and are capable of transferring electrons to (reducing) metal ions in solution. Chitin – a horny polysaccharide that forms the outer shell of insects Glycoside – produce (cyclic acetal) formed by the elimination of water from a hydroxyl group of a hemiacetal or hemiketal and another alcohol; type of covalent bond linking monosaccharides to polysaccharides. Lactose intolerance – a medical condition caused by a deficiency in the enzyme lactase Homopolysaccharide – a polysaccharide formed from only one kind of monosaccharide Glycogen granule Mucopolysaccharide – polysaccharides with a viscuous, jelly=like consistency that are found in connective tissue. Lectin – proteins that bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates; found primarily in plants. o-glycosidic bond – covalent linkage formed between an anomeric hydroxyl group and another alcohol; the linkage between monosacharides in polysaccharides. Glycoprotein – proteins that contain covalently bonded carbohydrate units sialic acid – any of a group of reducing amino acids that are essentially carbohydrates and are found especially as components of blood and glycoproteins and mucoproteins. Study Guide Five major functions of carbohydrates - role in energy production through glucose metabolism - structural and protective materials - components of nucleic acids – (ribose and deoxyribose) - informational markers for molecular recognition. - Precursor for synethesis of other molecules Six major classes of carbohydrates - monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides (storage), polysaccharides (structural), peptidoglycans, glycoproteins Difference between ketose and aldose Ketose – ketone based carbohydrate. Aldose – aldehyde based carbohydrate Monosaccharides – (ch2o)n – have one hydroxyl on each c except for 1 that has carbonyl Structures of glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, D-ribose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D- fructose Formations of hemiacetals and hemiketals
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Hemiacetal – aldehyde plus alcohol Hemiketal – ketone plus alcohol Intramolecular cyclization especially of glucose and ribose 4 reactions of monosaccharides and their importance to the cell Oxidation-reduction – required for complete metabolic breakdown Oxidation – aldehyde to carb. Acid – reduces metal ions in solution
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My Study Guide3 - Chapter 7 Monosaccharide a carbohydrate...

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