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study guide 3 - Psychology 101 Study guide 3 Chapter 5...

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Psychology 101: Study guide 3 Chapter 5 Conditioning (Example: bell, food, and dog.) Before Conditioning Neutral Stimulus Random response o Sound of a bell Dog pricking ears Unconditioned stimulus(UCS) Unconditional Response(UCR) o Meat salivation During Conditioning Neutral Stimulus Unconditional stimulus(USC) Unconditional response(UCR) o Sound of bell Meat Unconditional response During conditioning, the bell is rung just before the presentations of meat. After Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus(CS) Conditional Response (CR) o Sound of bell Salivation Eventually the ringing of the bell alone brings about salivation. We now can say that conditioning has been accomplished: the previously neutral stimulus of the bell is now considered a conditioned stimulus that brings about the conditioned response of salivation. Stimulus generalization vs. Stimulus discrimination. Stimulus generalization – the process that occurs when a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus; the more similar the two stimuli are, the more likely generalization is to occur. Stimulus discrimination – the process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not; the ability to differentiate between stimuli. o Examples Scooter loves dog treats. He eats anything that resembles a milkbone. Stimulus generalization Scooter salivates and begs at the smell of bacon flavored treats. He does not respond to treats that smell like green peas or broccoli. Stimulus discrimination Operant conditioning Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences. o Reinforcement – the process by which a stimulus is increased the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated o Reinforces - any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again o Positive reinforcement – a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increased in a preceding response.
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