Color Coding: - Names - Different Presentations - Definitions - Concept - Sub-Concept - Necessary Definition Chapter 7: Utilitarianism Textbook: I) Some Thoughts: A) If morality would always be best for the majority than loyalty is meaningless if you will always sacrifice those you love for the majority. II) Introduction A) The question relates to a problem in chapter one or two, is a rich person obliged to give a poor child money, if the answer was no then, it has to be no now. Also, in the case of promises, if the book said we should keep them, there is no reason for us to change this. B) The guy in question didn't earn any of that money, so that is not his to give. Even if he had a noble cause for doing so, if he used the 5 million instead to do a neutral act IDK. Is this morally permissible ? I don't think so. It would be a moral wrong. Subjectivism matters in this case, who is right or wrong to give the money. C) The Principles go back to chapter one when it asks is something too moral. It isn't realistic for us to do ?? D) R. M. Hare says, “ Without principles we could not learn anything whatever from our elders .... Every generation would have to start from scratch and teach itself. ” E) Deontological (deontology) 1) these theories hold that something is inherently right or good about such acts as truth telling and promise keeping and inherently wrong or bad about such acts as lying and promise breaking. F) Teleological ethics 1) Ethical theories that focus primarily on consequences in determining moral rightness and wrongness
2) Utilitarianism: It calls for the maximization of goodness in society — that is, the greatest goodness for the greatest number — and not merely the good of the agent. 3) Ethical egoism: best for oneself G) Classical utilitarianism: 1) Epicurus (342 – 270 BCE), - “ pleasure is the goal that nature has ordained for us; it is also the standard by which we judge everything good. ” 2) Francis Hutcheson (1694 – 1746) - “ that action is best, which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers. ” 3) David Hume (1711 – 1776) - introduced the term utility to describe the pleasing consequences of actions as they impact people. H) Jeremy Bentham 1)The consequentialist principle states that the rightness or wrongness of an act is determined by the goodness or badness of the results that follow. It is the end, not the means, the end justifies the means. 2)The utility, or hedonist, principle the only thing that is good in itself is some specific type of state. An act is right if it either brings about more pleasure than pain or prevents pain, and an act is wrong if it brings about more pain than pleasure or prevents pleasure. 3)hedonic calculus. - the score for any experience is by summing the seven aspects of a pleasurable or painful experience: ~ its intensity, duration, certainty, nearness, fruitfulness, purity, and extent.
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