Review.docx - Review Chapter 1 Operating Systems \u2013 exploit the hardware resources of one or more processors and provide a set of services to system

Review.docx - Review Chapter 1 Operating Systems u2013...

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Review: Chapter 1 Operating Systems – exploit the hardware resources of one or more processors and provide a set of services to system users. They also manage secondary memory and I/O devices. The OS is responsible for controlling the use of a computer’s resources, such as I/O, main and secondary memory, and processor execution time. Functions in the same way as ordinary computer software. Program, or suite of programs, executed by the processor . Frequently relinquishes control and must depend on the processor to allow it to regain control Processor – Also referred as CPU. Controls the operation of the computer and performs the processing of data Main Memory – Stores data and programs. It’s typically volatile. I/O modules – Move data between the computer and its external environment. Secondary memory (disks), communication equipment, terminals System Bus – Provides communication among processors, main memory, and I/O modules Microprocessor – Invention that brought about desktop and handheld computing. Contains a processor or a single chip. Graphical Processing Units (GPU) – Provide efficient computation on arrays of data using single- instruction multiple data techniques pioneered in supercomputers. Digital Signal Processors (DSP) –Deal with streaming signals, such as audio or video System on a Chip (SoC) – To satisfy the requirements of handheld devices, the classic microprocessor is giving way to the SoC Instruction Execution – A program consists of a set of instructions stored in memory. Processor reads (fetches) instructions from memory, then executes instruction Instruction Cycle – The processing required for a single instruction. Start -> fetch -> Execute -> Loop/Halt The processor fetches an instruction from memory (where?). Typically, the program counter holds the address of the next instruction to be fetched. And then PC is incremented Instruction Register – Fetched instruction is loaded into instruction register. Processor interprets the instruction and performs required action. Instruction being executed Opcode – Program Counter (PC) – Address of the instruction Accumulator (AC) – Temporary storage Interrupts – Mechanisms by which other modules may interrupt the normal sequencing of the processor. Provided to improve processor utilization
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Program – Generated by some condition that occurs as a result of an instruction execution, such as arithmetic overflow, division by zero, attempt to execute an illegal machine instruction, and reference outside a user's allowed memory space. Timer – Generated by a timer within the processor. This allows the operating system to perform certain functions on a regular basis. I/O – Generated by an I/O controller, to signal normal completion of an operation or to signal a variety of error conditions.
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