Eng. 100 – Sum. 164 Hafez, Spr. ‘96 Directions: You have 45 minutes to read and summarize the following passage. The number of words in the passage is indicated in brackets, at the end of the passage. Your summary should be approximately one third the length of the original text. Language Codes and Schooling According to Bernstein, there are several theoretical perspectives on the nature of modern education and its implications of inequality. One approach emphasizes linguistic skills. Bernstein argued that children from varying backgrounds develop different codes, or forms of speech, during their early lives, which affect their subsequent school experience. The speech of lower-class children, represents a restricted code: a type of speech tied to the cultural setting of a lower class community or district. Many lower class people live in a strong familial or neighborhood culture, in which values or norms are taken for granted, and not expressed in language. Lower-class people tend to socialize their children directly by the use of rewards or reprimands to correct
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