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chapter3part1

# chapter3part1 - CS2710,ISSP2610 Chapter3 1...

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1 CS 2710, ISSP 2610 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Solving Problems by Searching Chapter 3

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2 Ideal Rational Agents “… should take whatever action is expected to maximize its  performance measure on the basis of its percept sequence and  whatever built-in knowledge it has Key points: Performance measure Actions Percept sequence Built-in knowledge
3 Rational agents Environ ment Agent percepts actions ? Sensors Effectors How to design this?

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4 Goal-based Agents Agents that take actions in the pursuit of a goal or  goals.
5 Goal-based Agents What should a goal-based agent do when none of  the possible actions leads to a goal? Choose an action that seems to get us closer to a  goal state

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6 Problem Solving as Search view goal-attainment as problem solving; search  through a state space. In chess, e.g., a state is a board configuration
7 Problem Solving A problem is characterized as: An initial state  A set of actions  A goal test A cost function

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8 Problem Solving A problem is characterized as: An initial state  A set of actions  successors:  state   set of states A goal test goalp: state   true or false A cost function edgecost edge between states   cost
9 Example  Problems Toy problems (but sometimes useful) Illustrate/test various problem-solving methods Concise, exact description Can be used to compare performance Examples : 8-puzzle, 8-queens problem, Cryptarithmetic, Vacuum world,  Missionaries and cannibals, simple route finding Real-world problem More difficult No single, agreed-upon description Examples : Route finding, Touring and traveling salesperson problems, VLSI  layout, Robot navigation, Assembly sequencing

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10 Toy Problems The vacuum world The vacuum world The world has only two  locations Each location may or may not  contain  dirt The agent may be in one  location or the other 8 possible  world states Three possible actions:  Left,  Right, Suck Goal : clean up all the dirt 1 2 4 3 5 6 7 8
11 Toy Problems The vacuum world

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chapter3part1 - CS2710,ISSP2610 Chapter3 1...

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